SAFETY OF BUILDING SYSTEMS. ECOLOGICAL PROBLEMS OF CONSTRUCTION PROJECTS. GEOECOLOGY

GEO-ECOLOGY OF THE SUBTERRANEAN SPACE WITHIN THE FRAMEWORK OF ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES

Вестник МГСУ 1/2013
  • Potapov Aleksandr Dmitrievich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor, Head, Department of Engineering Geology and Geoecology, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; Этот e-mail адрес защищен от спам-ботов, для его просмотра у Вас должен быть включен Javascript .
  • Chernyshev Sergey Nikoloaevich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) Doctor of Geological and Mineralogical Sciences, Professor, Department of Engineering Geology and Geo-ecology, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federa- tion; Этот e-mail адрес защищен от спам-ботов, для его просмотра у Вас должен быть включен Javascript .

Страницы 159-168

The authors provide several philosophical views and an advanced theoretical approach to the positioning of branches of geo-ecology in the general network of ecologyrelated sciences. The present-day system of views in respect of the subject matter of geo-ecology is challenged by new developments and areas of research.Rock destabilization caused by construction works and further settling of adjacent areas inflicts the ecological damage. Lithosphere is responsible for the filtering and purification of the water; biogens and microelements are also added into the water within the lithosphere. Lithosphere accommodates subterranean structures, and it also serves as the living environment for microorganisms. These living organisms produce their influence onto lithogenesis; they can also modify conditions of construction and operation of subterranean structures accommodated as deep as several kilometers below the Earth surface. The subterranean space, taken as a constituent of the biosphere, produces a substantial impact on the quality of the environment on the Earth surface. Geo-ecological prerequisites of construction of subterranean structures are complex and understudied if compared to those that are considered before any construction works on the surface of the Earth. Problematic accessibility to deep massifs serves as the reason for their insufficient study. Geo-ecology of the subterranean space serves as one of the most important scientific branch that enjoys an independent subject matter and areas of research.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2013.1.159-168

Библиографический список
  1. Potapov A.D. Nauchno-metodologicheskie osnovy geoekologicheskoy bezopasnosti stroitel'stva [Scientific and Methodological Basics of Geo-ecological Safety of Construction Works]. Moscow, 2002, 280 p.
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A MODERN APPROACH TO THE CONCEPT OF THE NOOSPHERE AND DEVELOPMENTOF ITS THEORY

Вестник МГСУ 6/2013
  • Potapov Aleksandr Dmitrievich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor, Head, Department of Engineering Geology and Geoecology, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; Этот e-mail адрес защищен от спам-ботов, для его просмотра у Вас должен быть включен Javascript .
  • Ryabova Svetlana Sergeevna - Academy of Public Administration of the President of the Republic of Belarus (Academy of Management) Senior Lecturer, Department of Management of Regional Development, Academy of Public Administration of the President of the Republic of Belarus (Academy of Management), 17 Moskovskaya st., Minsk, 220007, Republic of Belarus; Этот e-mail адрес защищен от спам-ботов, для его просмотра у Вас должен быть включен Javascript .

Страницы 139-147

The authors elaborate on a new critical approach to the assessment of the concept of the “noosphere”. The basic principles of Vernadskiy’s concept of the “noosphere” are assessed from the viewpoint of the current state of the human civilization. It is proven that the key principles of Vernadskiy’s theory cannot serve as the basis for the noosphere. So far, the theory of the “noosphere” does not exist. There are just a few prerequisites for the attainment of the noosphere, due to the limited knowledge and information about the natural environment and the human ability to interact with it without inflicting any damage. The authors argue the noosphere can only be attained if and when the superiority of the anthropocentrism is overcome and the shift-over to the biocentrism is implemented. The authors insist that the concept of “sustainable development”, which is widely regarded as the primary method for overcoming the global ecological crisis, can be evaluated as a limited and purely pragmatic solution to the environmental problems arising at this phase of the human development; therefore, it may serve as the basis for the modern theory of the “noosphere” to a limited extent.The basic principles of the method of harmonization used to arrange the conditions needed for the implementation of the noosphere are considered in the article. The authors demonstrate that the co-evolutionary approach to further development of the humanity and the biosphere is the basis for the formation of the noosphere. The conclusion is that both mutualism and competition facilitate evolution. The concept of co-evolution applies to the philosophical principle of harmonization valid both for an individual person and the whole humankind. A widening gap between the research achievements and the ability of the biosphere to perceive and to assimilate them is the reason for the ecological crisis. The solution consists in the ecologization of science and technology, as well as in the generation by each person and the whole humankind of the noosphere-centered mode of thinking. Compilation of the modern theory of the “noosphere” is a key task of natural sciences to be attained through the employment of technological advancements.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2013.6.139-147

Библиографический список
  1. Vernadskiy V.I. Biosfera i noosfera [Biosphere and Noosphere]. Moscow, 1989,185 p.
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  12. Potapov A.D., Ryabova S.S. Ekologizatsiya nauki i tekhniki kak metod formirovaniya noosfery [Ecologizaiton of Science and Technology as the Noosphere Formation Method]. V.I. Vernadskiy i noosfernaya paradigma razvitiya obshchestva, nauki, kul’tury, obrazovaniya i ekonomiki v XXI veke. [V.I. Vernadskiy and the Noospheric Paradigm for Development of Society, Science, Culture, Education and Economy in the 21st Century]. Tr. Mezhdunar. konf. [Works of International Conference]. March 12—14, 2013, St. Petersburg, vol. 1, pp. 176—190.

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Geological environment as a noospheric category

Вестник МГСУ 11/2013
  • Trofimov Viktor Titovich - Moscow State University named after M.V. Lomonosov (MGU) Doctor of Geological and Mineralogical Sciences, Professor, Vice-rector, Moscow State University named after M.V. Lomonosov (MGU), Rector's office, 1 Leninskiye Gory, Moscow, 119234, Russian Federation; Этот e-mail адрес защищен от спам-ботов, для его просмотра у Вас должен быть включен Javascript .
  • Korolev Vladimir Aleksandrovich - Moscow State University named after M.V. Lomonosov (MGU) Doctor of Geological and Mineralogical Sciences, professor, Department of Engineering and Ecological Geology, Moscow State University named after M.V. Lomonosov (MGU), Rector's office, 1 Leninskiye Gory, Moscow, 119234, Russian Federation; Этот e-mail адрес защищен от спам-ботов, для его просмотра у Вас должен быть включен Javascript .

Страницы 188-193

In the paper the term definition "geological environment", given earlier by various researchers, is considered. It is emphasized that geological environment is changing and evolving with the times. This evolution is at the same time quantitative (a gradual increase in geological environment volume due to the increasing anthropogenic impacts on the lithosphere) and qualitative (changes in the geological environment).According to the authors, at the present time different definition should be given to the category "geological environment" in comparison to the previously used by different authors in different disciplines. Namely, the category "geological environment" should be understood not only by "eco-sense" as a habitat (partial) or activity environment (including economic and other activity), but also by the "noospheric sense" — as intelligently organized environment habitat (partial, along with other geospheres of the Earth) and human activity environment.The geological environment is not just "a part of the lithosphere .... etc. ", but also an essential component of the Earth's biosphere and ecosystems at various levels, including global level, ensuring their existence and operation. Therefore, if human activity deteriorates this environment, that leads to the destruction of ecosystems, which are in some way related to the geological environment, and to the environmental crisis, and ultimately — to the degradation of the entire civilization.Hence the alternative is necessary — the implementation of such a reasonable (noospheric, regulated and controlled) human activity, which would not worsen the geological environment, but on the contrary, would lead to its preservation and coexistence with other components of the Earth's biosphere, which excludes environmental crises.On the basis of this noospheric conception a new definition of the term "geological formation" is given: geological environment is the area of the upper lithosphere layers, which in the past, present or future is in collaboration with engineering and economic human activity, qualitatively and quantitatively evolving over time, and which is a component of natural or natural-industrial ecosystems, and the possible element of the geonoogenesis.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2013.11.188-193

Библиографический список
  1. Trofimov V.T. Geologicheskaya sreda [Geological Environment]. Trofimov V.T., Korolev V.A., Khar'kina M.A. etc. Editor Trofimov V.T. Bazovye ponyatiya inzhenernoy geologii i ekologicheskoy geologii. 280 osnovnykh terminov [Basic Concepts of Engineering Geology and Ecological Geology. 280 Key Terms]. Moscow, Geomarketing Publ., 2012, 320 p.
  2. Popov V.I. Sostoyanie i zadachi izucheniya osadochnykh formatsiy [State and Tasks of Sedimantary Formations Investigation]. Soveshchanie po osadochnym porodam [Conference on Sediments]. Moscow, Academy of Sciences of USSR, 1952, no.1, pp. 59—87.
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  5. Mel'nikova K.P., Sergeev E.M., Idei V.I. Vernadskogo o noosfere i dal'neyshee razvitie inzhenernoy geologii [The ideas of Vernadsky about Noosphere and the Further Development of Engineering Geology]. Vestnik MGU. Seriya 4. Geologiya [Proceedings of Moscow State University. Series 4. Geology]. 1963, no. 1, pp. 43—47.
  6. Sergeev E.M. Eshche raz ob inzhenernoy geologii [Once Again on Engineering Geology]. Puti dal'neyshego razvitiya inzhenernoy geologii [The Development Options of Engineering Geology]. Moscow, MGU Publ., 1971, pp. 117-123.
  7. Vernadskiy V.I. Neskol'ko slov o noosfere [A Few Words about the Noosphere]. Uspekhi biologii [Biology Achievements]. 1944, vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 113—120.
  8. Teilhard de Chardin P. The Phenomenon of Man. Moscow, Ustoychivyy Mir Publ., 2001, 232 p.
  9. Gryaznov O.N., Dubeykovskiy S.G. Noogenez i geologicheskaya sreda promyshlenno-gorodskikh aglomeratsiy Urala [Noogenesis and Geological Environment of Industrial and Urban Centers of the Ural]. Teoreticheskie problemy inzhenernoy geologii: Trudy Mezhdunarodnoy nauchnoy konferentsii [Theoretical Problems of Engineering Geology: Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference]. Moscow, MGU Publ., 1999, pp. 155—157.
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  11. Korolev V.A. Perspektivy razvitiya inzhenernoy geologii i ee transformatsii v geologiyu noosfery [Prospects for the Development of Engineering Geology and its Transformation into the Geology of the Noosphere]. Inzhenernaya geologiya segodnya i zavtra: Trudy Mezhdunarodnoy nauchnoy konferentsii [Engineering Geology Today and Tomorrow. Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference]. Moscow, MGU Publ., 1996, pp. 60—71.
  12. Korolev V.A. Ob osnovnykh polozheniyakh teorii noogeneza i zadachakh geologii noosfery (noogeologii) [On the Fundamentals of Noogenesis Theory and Objectives of the Geology of Noosphere (Noogeology)]. Teoreticheskie problemy inzhenernoy geologii: trudy Mezhdunarodnoy nauchnoy konferentsii [Theoretical Problems of Engineering Geology. Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference]. Moscow, MGU Publ., 1999, pp. 145—146.
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Culture in ecology — a part of the noosphere theory, the ideological base in reconstruction

Вестник МГСУ 12/2013
  • Chernyshev Sergey Nikolaevich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU) Doctor of Geologo-Mineralogical Sciences, Professor, Department of Engineering Geology and Geoecology, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; Этот e-mail адрес защищен от спам-ботов, для его просмотра у Вас должен быть включен Javascript .

Страницы 123-130

Culture in ecology is a research area founded in Russia by Dmitry Sergeevich Likhachev in 1979. Like any science, it has its target of research (World Culture), its purpose — the preservation of national cultures, its own generalization method related to the method of ecology. Culture in ecology is a scientific discipline. It is not a part of the environment, as it has a separate subject of study. It can be considered a part of the noosphere theory. Culture as a whole is vast human creation, which includes creative, handicraft and other skills related to agriculture, development of the planet's resources, education and training of children, the highest ideals of human being, engineering, arts, protecting the environment and cultural heritage.Culture is a means of managing material noospheric objects. Culture ecology studies the creativity, engineering, and economic interactions in the society and their impact on the human environment, because it is closely connected to ecology. Culture ecology should be developed in order to manage the biosphere or even the noosphere as rationally constructed megasystem consisting of natural and man-made objects. Noosphere as an ideal state of the environment does not exist in reality. It is far from predation and barbarism in terms of using natural resources. Today the principles of culture ecology are based on the development of projects of recreating historic landscapes, historic buildings and structures for the purposes of modern society. In the report the author focuses on two examples of such work: the Cathedral of Christ the Savior in Moscow and the Frauenkirche in Dresden. They are the examples of constructions corresponding to the requirements for ecological facilities and cultural experience. They should be considered the islands of noosphere in the modern imperfect world and science. The combination of old and new is a tricky thing. It is easy to destroy the balance between old guardian of the spirit, and new functioning elements of the statutes for the modern society needs. It is easy to upset the balance and thus give rise for objections from one side or another. The debates on inclusion old and new parts should be going in the process of rebuilding objects in new social environment.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2013.12.123-130

Библиографический список
  1. Vernadskiy V.I. Neskol'ko slov o noosfere [A Few Words on the Noosphere]. Uspekhi biologii [Progress of Biology]. 1944, vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 113—120.
  2. Potapov A.D., Ryabova S.S. Sovremennyy podkhod k kontseptsii noosfery i ee teoreticheskomu razvitiyu [A Modern Approach to the Concept of the Noosphere and Development of its Theory]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2013, no. 6, pp. 139—148.
  3. Trofimov V.T., Korolev V.A. Geologicheskaya sreda kak noosfernaya kategoriya [Geological Environment as a Noospheric Category]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2013, no. 11, pp. 188—193.
  4. Izbornik (Sbornik proizvedeniy literatury Drevney Rusi) [Collected Works of Ancient Russian Literature]. Content by Dmitrieva L.A., Likhacheva D.S. Moscow, Hudozhestvennaya Literatura Publ., 1969, pp. 326—327, 738—739.
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  7. Chernyshev S.N. Ekologiya kul'tury i sovremennye zadachi sokhraneniya arkhitekturnykh kompleksov [Ecology of Culture and Modern Problems of Preservation of Architectural Complexes]. Prirodnye usloviya stroitel'stva i sokhraneniya khramov pravoslavnoy Rusi: trudy 4-go Mezhdunarodnogo nauchno-prakticheskogo. simpoziuma [Proceedings of the 4th International Scientific and Practical Symposium "Natural Conditions for the Construction and Preservation of the Orthodox Churches of Russia" ]. Sergiev Posad, 2012, pp. 406—413.
  8. Vedenin Yu.A. Formirovanie novogo kul'turno-ekologicheskogo podkhoda k sokhraneniyu naslediya [Formation of a New Cultural and Ecological Approach to the Heritage Conservation]. Ekologiya kul'tury: al'manakh [Almanac "Ecology of Culture"]. Russian Research Institute of Cultural Heritage named after D.S. Likhachev, Moscow, 2000, pp. 76—84.
  9. Volker Stoll, Carsten Leibenart. Geotechnische und Hydrogeologische Arbeiten fur den Wiederaufbau der Frauenkirche Dresden und deren Umfeld. Prirodnye usloviya stroitel'stva i sokhraneniya khramov pravoslavnoy Rusi: sbornik tezisov 5-go Mezhdunarodnogo nauchno-prakticheskogo simpoziuma [Collection of Abstracts of the 5th International Scientific and Practical Symposium "Natural Conditions for the Construction and Preservation of the Orthodox Churches of Russia"]. Nizhniy Novgorod, 2013, pp. 41—49.

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