ARCHITECTURE AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT. RESTRUCTURING AND RESTORATION

Experience of restoration and reconstruction of architectural monuments: from engineering researches to projects implementation by scientists and students of MGSU

Вестник МГСУ 7/2014
  • Chernyshev Sergey Nikolaevich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU) Doctor of Geologo-Mineralogical Sciences, Professor, Department of Engineering Geology and Geoecology, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; Этот e-mail адрес защищен от спам-ботов, для его просмотра у Вас должен быть включен Javascript .

Страницы 18-27

For more than 20 years the author with his colleagues conducts engineering researches, design of restoration and reconstruction of various architectural monuments. Full cycles of works from engineering investigations to implementation of the own projects are executed on three objects: 1) architectural monument of the 19th century, the church in the museum preserve Abramtsevo (Moscow region), during 2005-2006; 2) a monument of Orthodox church history, a unique soil construction which is called "The Holy Ditch" in the village Diveevo (Nizhny Novgorod region) since 1997 to the present; 3) Church of Our Lady of Kazan also in Diveevo village during 1997-2002. For churches engineering researches are executed, calculations of the bases are made, ways of strengthening the bases are chosen, architectural projects of restoration are created. The church is restored by students under supervision of the experts from the university. The church in Diveevo was partially destroyed during the Soviet period. During restoration high-rise parts of the church were constructed. The works were performed by working restorers under control of the author of article in 2002-2004. Participation of students, masters, graduate students in restoration works had great educational value, gave to young people experience and knowledge. Students studied under professional restorers. Generalization is given in summary. D.S. Likhachyov's theory and our own experience are used. The principle of reconstructing barbarously destroyed engineering constructions, buildings and architectural complexes is formulated. It corresponds to the realities of the 21st century, new technological capabilities and requirements of modern society. Briefly: the reconstructed structure, in our opinion, has to face not only the past, but also the future. It is not always necessary to create the exact copy of the lost construction. Recreating the destroyed construction, it is necessary to apply new materials to increase the reliability and eliminate constructive imperfection of ancient constructions together with preserving old forms. Buildings and constructions have to be under construction anew mainly for performance of former functions, but the buildings have to meet modern requirements on the equipment and internal planning, modern technical norms. The project of the lost building needs to be made taking into account the change of environment. These provisions were successfully incarnated in the process of construction of St. Ditch in Diveev and they are also illustrated on the examples of the reconstruction of the Cathedral of Christ the Savior in Moscow and Frauenkiche in Dresden.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2014.7.18-27

Библиографический список
  1. Paushkin G.A., Cherkasova L.I., Kryzhanovskiy A.L., Alekseev G.V. Problemy nadezhnosti osnovaniy i fundamentov khramovykh zdaniy na ostrove Anzer [Problems of Reliability of Bases and Foundations of Temple Buildings on the Island Anzer]. Problemy obespecheniya ekologicheskoy bezopasnosti stroitel'stva: 4 Denisovskie chteniya, sbornik [Proceedings of the 4th Denisov Readings: Problems of Ensuring Ecological Safety of Construction]. Moscow, MGSU Publ., 2008, pp. 126—134.
  2. Arts and Crafts. Von Morris bis Mackintosh — Reformbewegung zwischen Kunstgewerbe und Sozialutopie. Darmstadt, 1995, 152 S.
  3. Kunstlerkolonien in Europa im Zeichnen der Ebene und des Himmels. Ausstellungskatalog des Germanischen Nationalmuseums. Nurenberg, 2002, 124 S.
  4. Chernyshev S.N., Shcherbina E.V. Svyataya Bogorodichnaya Kanavka: prirodnye usloviya i tekhnicheskie resheniya po vossozdaniyu [St. Ditch: Environmental and Technical Solutions for Reconstruction]. Prirodnye usloviya stroitel'stva i sokhraneniya khramov Pravoslavnoy Rusi: sbornik trudov 2-go Mezhdunarodnogo nauchno-prakticheskogo simpoziuma [Proceeding of the 2-nd International Scientific and Practical Symposium "Environmental Conditions of Construction and Preservation of the Temples of Orthodox Russia]. Sergiev Posad, the Moscow Patriarchate Publ., 2005, pp. 247—253.
  5. Tserkov' Kazanskoy ikony Bozhiey Materi v Diveeve [Church of Our Lady of Kazan in Diveevo]. Moscow, Yabloko Publ., 2004, pp. 99—106.
  6. Kornilov A.M., Cherkasova L.I., Chernyshev S.N. Prognoz osadok fundamentov pravoslavnykh khramov pri ikh restavratsii s uchetom istorii nagruzheniya osnovaniya i osobennostey konstruktsii fundamentov na primere tserkvi Kazanskoy ikony Bozhiey Materi Sv.-Troitskogo Serafimo-Diveevskogo monastyrya [Forecast of Foundation Settlement of Orthodox Temples at their Restoration Taking into Account the History of the Basis Loading and Features of the Bases Design on the Example of Church of Our Lady of Kazan of St. Troitsky Serafimo-Diveevsky monastery]. Akademicheskie chteniya N.A.Tsytovicha: 2-e Denisovskie chteniya [Proceeding of the N.A.Tsytovich's academic readings: 2-nd Denisov readings]. Moscow, MGSU Publ., 2003, pp. 80—84.
  7. Darchiya V.I., Pashkevich S.A., Pulyaev I.S., Pustovgar A.P., Chernyshev S.N. Vliyanie usloviy osveshchennosti otkosov na ekspluatatsionnye svoystva geosinteticheskikh setok na osnove poliamida-6 / [Influence of Ambient Light on Slopes on the Performance Properties of Geosynthetic Grids Based on Polyamide-6]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2013, no. 12, pp. 101—108.
  8. Chernyshev S.N., Timofeev V.Yu. Merzlotnye i gibridnye inzhenerno-geologicheskie protsessy v glinistykh gruntakh sooruzheniy Svyatoy Bogorodichnoy kanavki [Frost and Hybrid Engineering Geological Processes in Clay Soil of the Constructions of the St. Ditch]. Inzhenernaya geologiya [Engineering Geology]. 2012, no. 6, pp. 68—72.
  9. Tazina N.G., Darchiya V.I. Sozdanie gazonnykh travostoev na ochen' krutykh sklonakh sil'noy zatenennosti v Diveeve [Creation the Lawn Herbages on Very Cool Slopes of Strong Opacity in Diveevo]. Resursosberegayushchie tekhnologii v lugovom kormoproizvodstve: Materialy Mezhdunarodnoy nauchno-prakticheskoy konferentsii, posvyashchennoy 100-letiyu kafedry lugovodstva. Sbornik [Resource-saving Technologies in a Meadow Forage Production. St. Materials of the International Scientific and Practical Conference Devoted to the 100 Anniversary of the Chair of Grassland Culture]. SPbGAU Publ., 2013, pp. 240—245.
  10. Batsukh N., Chernyshtv S.N., Surmaagav M., Tkachev V.N. Influence of Engineering-Geological Conditions in the Mongolian Architecture. The Engineering Geology of Ancient Works, Monuments and Historical Sites, Proceedings of International Symposium. IAEG, Athens, 1988, pp. 223—228.
  11. Likhachev D.S. Ekologiya kul'tury [Ecology of the Culture]. Moscow, 1979, no. 7, pp. 173—179.
  12. Chernyshev S.N. Ekologiya kul'tury — chast' ucheniya o noosfere, ideynoe osnovanie vossozdaniya zdaniy i sooruzheniy [Culture in Ecology — a Part of the Noosphere, the Ideological Base in Reconstruction]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2013, no. 12, pp. 123—130.
  13. Volker Stoll, Carsten Leibenart. Geotechnische und Hydrogeologische Arbeiten fur den Wiederaufbau der Frauenkirche Dresden und deren Umfeld. Prirodnye usloviya stroitel'stva i sokhraneniya khramov pravoslavnoy Rusi: sbornik tezisov 5-go Mezhdunarodnogo nauchno-prakticheskogo simpoziuma [Proceeding of the 5th International Scientific and Practical Symposium "Environmental Conditions of Construction and Preservation of the Temples of Orthodox Russia]. N. Novgorod, 2013, pp. 41—49.

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INTERACTION OF A LONG SINGLE PILE THAT HAS A DOUBLE-LAYER BASE WITH ACCOUNT FOR COMPRESSIBILITY OF THE PILE SHAFT

Вестник МГСУ 4/2012
  • Ter-Martirosyan Zaven Grigor'evich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MSUCE) , Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MSUCE), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; Этот e-mail адрес защищен от спам-ботов, для его просмотра у Вас должен быть включен Javascript .
  • Trinh Tuan Viet - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MSUCE) postgraduate student, Department of Mechanics of Soils, Ground Foundation and Foundation Mechanics, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MSUCE), 26, Yaroslavskoe Shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; Этот e-mail адрес защищен от спам-ботов, для его просмотра у Вас должен быть включен Javascript .

Страницы 28 - 34

WITH ACCOUNT FOR COMPRESSIBILITY OF THE PILE SHAFT
The authors provide their solution to the problem of interaction of a long compressible pile that has a double-layer linear deformable base. The paper demonstrates that taking account of compressible properties of the pile material leads to qualitatively new distribution of shearing stresses over the surface of a cylindrical pile. It is noteworthy that increase of the pile length and stiffness of the upper section of the base raise the share of the load perceived by the surface of the pile. Besides, in particular conditions of the soil environment, the load perceived by the lower section of the base may reach approximately 20-30 % of the total load.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2012.4.28 - 34

Библиографический список
  1. Ter-Martirosyan Z.G. Mekhanika gruntov [Soil Mechanics]. Moscow, ASV Publ., 2009, 550 p.
  2. Ter-Martirosyan Z.G, Nguyen Giang Nam. Vzaimodeystvie svay bol'shoy dliny s neodnorodnym massivom s uchetom nelineynykh i reologicheskikh svoystv gruntov [Interaction between Long Piles and Heterogeneous Soil Body with the Account for Nonlinear and Rheological Properties of Soils]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2008, no. 2, pp. 3—14.
  3. Ukhov S.B., Semenov V.V., Znamenskiy V.V., Ter-Martirosyan Z.G., Chernyshev S.N. Mekhanika gruntov, osnovaniya i fundamenty [Soil Mechanics, Bases and Foundations]. Moscow, ASV Publ., 2004, 566 p.
  4. Ter-Martirosyan Z.G., Trinh Tuan Viet. Vzaimodeystvie odinochnoy dlinoy svai s osnovaniem s uchetom szhimaemosti stvola svai [Interaction between a Single Long Pile and the Bedding with Account for Compressibility of the Pile Shaft]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2011, no. 8, pp. 104—111.
  5. Nguyen Giang Nam. Identification of the Settlement of the Round Die with Allowance of Its Embedding. Collected papers of the 4th International Scientific Conference of Young Scientists, Postgraduates, and Doctoral Students. Construction as Formation of the Living Environment. Moscow, MSUCE, 2006.

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INTERACTION BETWEEN LONG PILES AND THE SOIL BODY AS PART OF THE SLAB-PILE FOUNDATION

Вестник МГСУ 3/2012
  • Ter-Martirosyan ZavenGrigorevich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MSUCE) Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor, Distinguished Scholar of the Russian Federation, Head of Department of Soils, Ground Foundation and Foundation Mechanics 8 (499) 261-59-88, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MSUCE), 26 Yaroslavskoeshosse, Moscow, 129337, Russia; Этот e-mail адрес защищен от спам-ботов, для его просмотра у Вас должен быть включен Javascript .

Страницы 74 - 78

The paper provides a definition of and a solution to the problems of interaction between long piles and the soil body as part of the slab-pile foundation with the due account for the interval between the piles, the length of piles and their correlations, as well as the nonlinear properties of soil identified by analytical and numerical methods through the application of Plaxis-2d software.
It is proven that the above properties produce a substantial impact onto the stress-strain state of soils that interact with the pile and the grid, and the impact values make it possible to assess the rigidity of the slab-pile foundation that is needed to solve the problems of the multiplicity of piles as well as the problems of distribution of the total load between the piles and the grid.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2012.3.74 - 78

Библиографический список
  1. Ter-Martirosyan Z.G. Mekhanika gruntov [Soil Mechanics]. Moscow, ASV, 2009, 550 p.
  2. Ter-Martirosyan Z.G., NguenZang Nam. Vzaimodeystvie svay bol’shoy dliny s neodnorodnym massivom s uchetom nelineynykh i geologicheskikh svoystv gruntov [Interaction between Long Piles and the Heterogeneous Soil Body with the Account for Nonlinear and Rheological Properties of Soils].Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering], 2008, Issue 2, pp. 3—14.
  3. Ter-Martirosyan Z.G., Trinh Tuan Viet. Vzaimodeystvie odinochnoy dlinoy svai s osnovaniem s uchetom szhimaemosti stvola svai [Interaction between a Single Long Pile and the Bedding with the Account for the Compressibility of the Pile Shaft]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering], Issue 8, 2011, pp. 104—111.

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ASSESSMENT OF RELIABILITY OF THE FOUNDATION SLAB RESTING ON THE LINEARLY DEFORMABLE BED AND CHARACTERIZED BY THE MODULUS OF DEFORMATION VARIABLE IN X- AND Y-AXIS DIRECTIONS

Вестник МГСУ 5/2012
  • Mkrtychev Oleg Vartanovich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MSUCE) Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor, Department of Strength of Materials, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MSUCE), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; Этот e-mail адрес защищен от спам-ботов, для его просмотра у Вас должен быть включен Javascript .
  • Myasnikova Elena Stanislavovna - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MSUCE) postgraduate student, Department of Strength of Materials, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MSUCE), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; Этот e-mail адрес защищен от спам-ботов, для его просмотра у Вас должен быть включен Javascript .

Страницы 29 - 33

In the proposed article, the behaviour of a foundation slab resting on the linearly deformable bed and characterized by the modulus of deformation variable in x- and y-axis directions is considered. The modulus of deformation and the load distribution are based on a regular pattern that features the following parameters: modulus of deformation mean =25МРа coefficient of variation =0,2, load distribution mean 0,5 МРа; coefficient of variation =0,1. Correlation coefficients between 1, 2...=0As a result of the research, the authors have identified the empirical deflection to approximate the theoretical load distribution. The research has demonstrated that both deflection and slope values follow a regular load distribution pattern. If the deflection value exceeds 20 cm and the slope value exceeds 5cm, the structure fails. Therefore, the theory of probability may be applied to assess the probability of failure of any structure.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2012.5.29 - 33

Библиографический список
  1. Mkrtychev O.V., Myasnikova E.S. Nadezhnost’ fundamentnykh konstruktsiy na nelineyno deformiruemom osnovanii [Reliability of Structures of Foundations Resting on the Nonlinearly Deformable Bedding]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2012, no. 4.
  2. Rzhanitsyn A.R. Teoriya rascheta stroitel’nykh raschetov na nadezhnost’ [Theory of Structural Analysis in terms of Reliability]. Moscow, Stroyizdat Publ., 1978.
  3. Sobolev D.N. Statisticheskie modeli uprugogo osnovaniya [Statistical Models of the Elastic Bedding]. Moscow, Moscow Institute of Civil Engineering named after V.V. Kuybyshev, 1973.

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INFLUENCE OF THE SATURATION PERCENTAGE OF THE CLAY-BEARING SOIL ON ITS STRESS-STRAIN STATE

Вестник МГСУ 8/2012
  • Ter-Martirosyan Zaven Grigorevich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor, Distinguished Scholar of the Russian Federation, Chair, Department of Mechanics of Soils, Beddings and Foundations 8 (495) 287-49-14, ext. 1425, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering, 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; Этот e-mail адрес защищен от спам-ботов, для его просмотра у Вас должен быть включен Javascript .
  • Nguyen Huy Hiep Huy Hiep - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering postgraduate student, Department of Mechanics of Soils, Beddings and Foundations, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering, 26, YaroslavskoeShosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; Этот e-mail адрес защищен от спам-ботов, для его просмотра у Вас должен быть включен Javascript .

Страницы 112 - 120

The authors propose new analytical and numerical solutions to develop an advanced method
of assessment of the stress-strain state of unsaturated clay soils exposed to external loading.
The research findings demonstrate that the stress-strain state of the soil exposed to distributed
loading in the half-space b = 2a is complex and homogeneous. It depends on the percentage of saturation and on the excessive pore pressure based on the saturation percentage. At the interim
stage, when the pore water is squeezed towards drainage borders, the area that has a maximal
pore pressure in its centre, travels downwards. Consequently, the alteration of excessive pore pressure
in the course of time is dramatic in layers of soil between drainage surfaces. This finding was
obtained through the employment of analytical and numerical solutions.
It is noteworthy that the diagram of stress distribution ƒ = (ƒ1+ƒ2+ƒ3)/3 and z alongside z axis
below strip b = 2a demonstrates damping. This is the reason why the strip exposed to loading and
excessive pressure is limited in its dimensions. Besides, the authors have proven that the surface
soil settlement is caused by shear and 3-dimensional deformations of the soil exposed to the loading
alongside b = 2a strip. Therefore, s = sg + sv, and any settlement increase sg doesn't depend on the
excessive pore pressure, as it occurs concurrently with loading.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2012.8.112 - 120

Библиографический список
  1. Ter-Martirosyan Z.G. Mekhanika gruntov [Soil Mechanics]. Moscow, ASV Publ., 2009, 550 p.
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Calculation of dynamic load impact on reinforced concrete arches in the ground

Вестник МГСУ 1/2016
  • Barbashev Nikita Petrovich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU) Senior Lecturer, Department of Reinforced Concrete and Masonry Structures, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow,129337, Russian Federation; Этот e-mail адрес защищен от спам-ботов, для его просмотра у Вас должен быть включен Javascript .

Страницы 35-43

Concrete arches are widely used in the construction of underground facilities. The analysis of their work under dynamic loads (blasting, shock, seismic) will improve the efficiency of design and application. The article addresses the problems of calculation of reinforced concrete arches in the ground in terms of the action of dynamic load - compression wave. The calculation is made basing on the decision of a closed system of equations that allows performing the calculation of elastic-plastic curved concrete structures under dynamic loads. Keeping in mind the properties of elastic-plastic reinforcement and concrete in the process of design variations, σ-ε diagrams are variable. The calculation is performed by the direct solution of differential equations in partial derivatives. The result is based on a system of ordinary differential equations of the second order (expressing the transverse and longitudinal oscillations of the structure) and the system of algebraic equations (continuity condition of deformation). The computer program calculated three-hinged reinforced concrete arches. The structural calculations were produced by selection of the load based on the criteria of reaching the first limit state: ultimate strain of compressed concrete; ultimate strain tensile reinforcement; the ultimate deformation of the structure. The authors defined all the characteristics of the stress-strain state of the structure. The presented graphs show the change of bending moment and shear force in time for the most loaded section of the arch, the dependence of stresses and strains in concrete and reinforcement, stress changes in time for the cross-sectional height. The peculiarity of the problem is that the action of the load provokes the related dynamic forces - bending moment and longitudinal force. The calculations allowed estimating the carrying capacity of the structure using the criteria of settlement limit states. The decisive criterion was the compressive strength of concrete.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2016.1.35-43

Библиографический список
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  8. Filimonova E.A. Metodika poiska optimal’nykh parametrov zhelezobetonnykh konstruktsiy s uchetom riska otkaza [Identification of Optimal Parameters of Reinforced Concrete Structures with Account for the Probability of Failure]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2012, no. 10, pp. 128—133.
  9. Tamrazyan A.G., Dudina I.V. Obespechenie kachestva sbornykh zhelezobetonnykh konstruktsiy na stadii izgotovleniya [Providing the Quality of Precast Reinforced Concrete Structures on Production Stage]. Zhilishchnoe stroitel’stvo [Housing Construction]. 2001,no. 3, pp. 8—10. (In Russian)
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  11. Gorbatov S.V., Smirnov S.G. Raschet prochnosti vnetsentrenno-szhatykh zhelezobetonnykh elementov pryamougol’nogo secheniya na osnove nelineynoy deformatsionnoy modeli [Calculating the Stability of Reinforced Concrete Beam Columns with Rectangular Cross-section Basing on Nonlinear Deformation Model]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2011, no. 2, vol. 1, pp. 72—76. (In Russian)
  12. Zharnitskiy V.I., Belikov A.A. Eksperimental’noe izuchenie voskhodyashchikh i niskhodyashchikh uchastkov diagramm soprotivleniya betonnykh i zhelezobetonnykh prizm [Experimental Investigation of Upward and Downward Areas of a Diagram of a Resistance Log of Concrete and Reinforced Concrete Wedges]. Nauchnoe obozrenie [Scientific Review]. 2014, no. 7—1, pp. 93—98. (In Russian)
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  17. Bakhvalov N.S., Zhidkov N.P., Kobel’kov G.M. Chislennye metody [Numerical Methods]. 3rd edition, revised and enlarged. Moscow, BINOM. Laboratoriya znaniy Publ., 2012, 640 p. (In Russian)
  18. Timoshenko S.P. Kolebaniya v inzhenernom dele [Oscillations in Engineering]. Translated from English. 3rd edition. Moscow, KomKniga Publ., 2007, 440 p. (In Russian)
  19. Zharnitskiy V.I., Barbashev N.P. Kolebaniya krivolineynykh zhelezobetonnykh konstruktsiy pri deystvii intensivnykh dinamicheskikh nagruzok [Oscillations of Curved Reinforced Concrete Structures in Case of Intensive Dynamic Loads]. Nauchnoe obozrenie [Scientific Review]. 2015, no. 4, pp. 147—154. (In Russian)
  20. Belikov A.A., Zharnitskiy V.I. Uprugoplasticheskie kolebaniya zhelezobetonnykh balok pri deystvii poperechnoy i prodol’noy dinamicheskikh nagruzok [Elastic-Plastic Oscillations of Reinforced Concrete Beams in Case of Transverse and Longitudinal Dynamic Loads]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2011, no. 2—1, pp. 145—147. (In Russian)
  21. Barbashev N.P. K raschetu zhelezobetonnogo kol’tsa v grunte na deystvie volny szhatiya [Calculation of a Reinforced Concrete Circle in Soil in Case of Compression Wave Action]. Nauchnoe obozrenie [Scientific Review]. 2015, no. 10—1, pp. 79—83. (In Russian)

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Prediction of stress-strain state of municipal solid waste with application of soft soil creep model

Вестник МГСУ 9/2014
  • Ofrikhter Vadim Grigor'evich - Perm National Research Polytechnical University (PNRPU) Candidate of Technical Sciences, Associate Professor, Department of Construction Operations and Geotechnics, Perm National Research Polytechnical University (PNRPU), 29 Komsomol'skiy prospekt, Perm, 614990, Russian Federation; +7 (342) 219-83-74; Этот e-mail адрес защищен от спам-ботов, для его просмотра у Вас должен быть включен Javascript .
  • Ofrikhter Yan Vadimovich - Perm National Research Polytechnical University (PNRPU) student, Construction Department, Perm National Research Polytechnical University (PNRPU), 29 Komsomol'skiy prospekt, Perm, 614990, Russian Federation; +7 (342) 219-83-74; Этот e-mail адрес защищен от спам-ботов, для его просмотра у Вас должен быть включен Javascript .

Страницы 82-92

The deformation of municipal solid waste is a complex process caused by the nature of MSW, the properties of which differ from the properties of common soils. The mass of municipal solid waste shows the mixed behaviour partially similar to granular soils, and partially - to cohesive. So, one of mechanical characteristics of MSW is the cohesion typical to cohesive soils, but at the same time the filtration coefficient of MSW has an order of 1 m/day that is characteristic for granular soils. It has been established that MSW massif can be simulated like the soil reinforced by randomly oriented fibers. Today a significant amount of the verified and well proved software products are available for numerical modelling of soils. The majority of them use finite element method (FEM). The soft soil creep model (SSC-model) seems to be the most suitable for modelling of municipal solid waste, as it allows estimating the development of settlements in time with separation of primary and secondary consolidation. Unlike the soft soil, one of the factors of secondary consolidation of MSW is biological degradation, the influence of which is possible to consider at the definition of the modified parameters essential for soft soil model. Application of soft soil creep model allows carrying out the calculation of stress-strain state of waste from the beginning of landfill filling up to any moment of time both during the period of operation and in postclosure period. The comparative calculation presented in the paper is executed in Plaxis software using the soft-soil creep model in contrast to the calculation using the composite model of MSW. All the characteristics for SSC-model were derived from the composite model. The comparative results demonstrate the advantage of SSC-model for prediction of the development of MSW stress-strain state. As far as after the completion of the biodegradation processes MSW behaviour is similar to cohesion-like soils, the demonstrated approach seems to be useful for the design of waste piles as the basement for different constructions considering it as one of remediation techniques for the territories occupied by the old waste.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2014.9.82-92

Библиографический список
  1. Kockel R., Jessberger H.L. Stability Evaluation of Municipal Solid Waste Slopes. Proceedings of 11th European Conference for Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering. Copenhagen, Denmark, Danish Geotechnical Society, 1995, vol. 2, pp. 73—78.
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  3. Sivakumar Babu G.L., Reddy K.R., Chouskey S.K., Kulkarni H.S. Prediction of Longterm Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Settlement Using Constitutive Model. Practice Periodical of Hazardous, Toxic and Radioactive Waste Management. New York, ASCE, 2010, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 139—150. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)HZ.1944-8376.0000024.
  4. Sivakumar Babu G.L., Reddy K.R., Chouskey S.K. Constitutive Model for Municipal Solid Waste Incorporating Mechanical Creep and Biodegradation-induced Compression. Waste Management. Amsterdam, Elsevier, 2010, vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 11—22. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wasman.2009.09.005.
  5. Sivakumar Babu G.L., Reddy K.R., Chouskey S.K. Parametric Study of MSW Landfill Settlement Model. Waste Management. Amsterdam, Elsevier, 2011, vol. 31, no. 6, pp. 1222—1231. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wasman.2011.01.007.
  6. Sivakumar Babu G.L. Evaluation of Municipal Solid Waste Characteristics of a Typical Landfill in Bangalore. Bangalore, India, India Institute of Science, 2012. Available at: http://cistup.iisc.ernet.in/presentations/Research%20project/CIST038.pdf/. Date of access: 02.04.2014.
  7. Brinkgreve R.B.J., Vermeer P. On the Use of Cam-Clay Models. Proceedings of the IV International Symposium on Numerical Models in Geomechanics. Rotterdam, Balkema, 1992, vol. 2, pp. 557—565.
  8. Burland J.B. The Yielding and Dilation of Clay. Geotechnique, London, Thomas Telford Limited, 1965, vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 211—214.
  9. Burland J.B. Deformation of Soft Clay. PhD thes. Cambridge, UK, Cambridge University, 1967, 500 p.
  10. Brinkgreve R.B.J. Material Models. Plaxis 2D — Version 8. Rotterdam, A.A. Balkema, 2002, pp. 6-1—6-20.
  11. Brinkgreve R.B.J. Geomaterial Models and Numerical Analysis of Softening, Dissertation. Delft, Delft University of Technology, 1994. Available at: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994PhDT........15B/. Date of access: 02.04.2014.
  12. Stolle D.F.E., Bonnier P.G., Vermeer P.A. A Soft Soil Model and Experiences with Two Integration Schemes. Numerical Models in Geomechanics. Leiden, Netherlands, CRC Press, 1997, pp. 123—128.
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  14. Park H.I., Lee S.R. Long-term Settlement Behavior of Landfills with Refuse Decomposition. Journal of Solid Waste Technology and Management. Chester, USA, Widener University, 1997, vol. 24, no. 4, pp. 159—165.
  15. Murthy V.N.S. Geotechnical Engineering: Principles and Practices of Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering. New York, Marcel Dekker, Inc., 2003, 1056 p.

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EFFECT PRODUCED BY THE TECHNOSPHERE ON THE POLLUTIONOF WATER BODIES IN RECREATION AREAS OF A MEGALOPOLIS

Вестник МГСУ 8/2013
  • Sorokin Aleksandr Valer'evich - Moscow State University of Machine Building (MAMI) postgraduate student, Department of Environmental Safety of Motor Transport, Moscow State University of Machine Building (MAMI), 38 B. Semenovskaya st., Moscow, 107023, Russian Federation; Этот e-mail адрес защищен от спам-ботов, для его просмотра у Вас должен быть включен Javascript .
  • Sotnikova Elena Vasil’evna - Moscow State University of Machine Building (MAMI) Candidate of Chemical Sciences, Associate Professor, Department of Environmental Safety of Motor Transport, Moscow State University of Machine Building (MAMI), 38 B. Semenovskaya st., Moscow, 107023, Russian Federation; Этот e-mail адрес защищен от спам-ботов, для его просмотра у Вас должен быть включен Javascript .

Страницы 123-130

This article contains a quantitative analysis of the content of heavy metals in soils, waters and sediments of the Verkhniy Kuz'minskiy pond in Moscow. This pond, coupled with other water bodies of the recreation area, represent a historical monument included into the UNESCO registrar. It is common practice to consider heavy metals and toxic elements as target research components. In most cases, these substances serve as the markers of the human activity. Besides, iron was also included into the list of target research components due to the possibility of the ferrocene admixture in the fuel. This decision was also substantiated by the data obtained on the basis of the analysis of samples of soil, water and benthal deposits of the Bol'shoy Troparevskiy Pond in Moscow. The quantitative analysis performed according to GOST 17.4.02—83 (State Standard 17.4.02—83) included elements of the ICP-MS technique. The variations factor was calculated for the heavy metals content in the soil, water and benthal deposits. Highly concentrated elements were found there. A comparison with the prior data on the content of the above components in the Bol'shoy Troparevskiy Pond was performed to identify patterns of distribution and accumulation of the components under research.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2013.8.123-130

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  9. Vinogradov A.P. Zakonomernosti raspredeleniya khimicheskikh elementov v zemnoy kore [Regularities of Distribution of Chemical Elements in the Earth Crust]. Geokhimiya [Geochemistry]. 1956, no. 1, pp. 6—52.
  10. Vinogradov A. P. Srednie soderzhaniya khimicheskikh elementov v glavnykh tipakh izverzhennykh gornykh porod zemnoy kory [Average Content of Chemical Elements in Major Types of Erupted Rock in the Earth Crust]. Geokhimiya [Geochemistry]. 1962, no. 7, pp. 555—571.

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The dependence of sheet erosion velocity on slope angle

Вестник МГСУ 8/2014
  • Chernyshev Sergey Nikolaevich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) Doctor of Geological and Mineralogical Sciences, Professor, Department of Engineering Geology and Geoecology, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; +7 (499) 183-83-47; Этот e-mail адрес защищен от спам-ботов, для его просмотра у Вас должен быть включен Javascript .
  • Volodina Lyudmila Aleksandrovna - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) postgraduate student, Department of Urban Development and Environmental Safety, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; Этот e-mail адрес защищен от спам-ботов, для его просмотра у Вас должен быть включен Javascript .

Страницы 153-164

The article presents a method for estimating the erosion velocity on forested natural area. As a research object for testing the methodology the authors selected Neskuchny Garden - a city Park on the Moskva river embankment, named after the cognominal Palace of Catherine's age. Here, an almost horizontal surface III of the Moskva river terrace above the flood-plain is especially remarkable, accentuated by the steep sides of the ravine parallel to St. Andrew's, but short and nameless. The crests of the ravine sides are sharp, which is the evidence of its recent formation, but the old trees on the slopes indicate that it has not been growing for at least 100 years. Earlier Russian researchers defined vertical velocity of sheet erosion for different regions and slopes with different parent (in relation to the soil) rocks. The comparison of the velocities shows that climatic conditions, in the first approximation, do not have a decisive influence on the erosion velocity of silt loam soils. The velocities on the shores of Issyk-Kul lake and in Moscow proved to be the same. But the composition of the parent rocks strongly affects the sheet erosion velocity. Even low-strength rock material reduces the velocity by times. Phytoindication method gives a real, physically explainable sheet erosion velocities. The speed is rather small but it should be considered when designing long-term structures on the slopes composed of dispersive soils. On the slopes composed of rocky soils sheet erosion velocity is so insignificant that it shouldn't be taken into account when designing. However, there may be other geological processes, significantly disturbing the stability of slopes connected with cracks.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2014.8.153-164

Библиографический список
  1. Volodina L.A., Chernyshev S.N. Metodika opredeleniya skorosti ploskostnogo smyva dlya proektirovaniya sooruzheniy na sklonakh [Method of Determining the Speed of Washout for Design of Structures on Slopes]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2014, no. 8, pp. 54—61.
  2. Osipov V.I., Medvedev O.P., editors. Moskva: Geologiya i gorod [Moscow: Geology and the City]. Moscow, 1997, 400 p.
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  5. Ekologicheskiy atlas Moskvy [Environmental Atlas of Moscow]. Moscow, GUP NIIPI Genplana g. Moskvy Publ., 2000, 94 p.
  6. Dissmeyer G.E., Foster G.R. A Guide for Predicting Sheet and Rill Erosion on Forest Land. Tech. Pub., R8-TP 6. Atlanta, GA. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southern Region, 1984, 40 p.
  7. How Old Is My Tree? Athens-Clarke County Community Forester. Available at: http://www.michigan.gov/documents/dnr/TreeAge_401065_7.pdf. Date of Access: 07.07.2014.
  8. Makkaveev N.I., Chalov R.S. Erozionnye protsessy [Erosion Processes]. Moscow, Mysl' Publ., 1984, 256 p.
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  10. Zemlyanitskiy L.T. Ob erozii pochv v gornykh oblastyakh Yuzhnoy Kirgizii i Uzbekistana [On Soil Erosion in Mountain ous Areas of South Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan]. Eroziya pochv: sbornik [Soil Erosion: Collection of Works]. Moscow, AN SSSR Publ., 1937, pp. 59—67.
  11. Gorelov S.K. Razvitie protsessov poverkhnostnogo smyva i lineynoy erozii v tsentral'nom Kopetdage [Development of the Processes of Surface Runoff and Linear Erosion in Central Kopet Dagh]. Izvestiya ANSSSR. Seriya geograficheskaya [Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of USSR. Geographical Series]. 1974, no. 4, pp. 90—97.
  12. Zharkova Yu.G., Petrov V.N. Opredelenie intensivnosti smyva po obnazhennym chastyam korney rasteniy [Determination of Washout Intensity According to the Exposed Parts of the Roots of Plants]. Eroziya pochv i ruslovye protsessy [Soil Erosion and Channel Processes]. Moscow, 1974, no. 4, pp. 58—60.
  13. Pereslegina R.E. Issledovanie ploskostnogo poverkhnostnogo snosa v rayone yugo-zapadnogo poberezh'ya ozera Issyk-Kul' [Study of Planar Surface Drift near the Southwestern Shore of Lake Issyk-Kul]. Geomorfologiya [Geomorphology]. 1990, no. 3, pp. 90—99.
  14. Pereslegina R.E. Otsenka skorosti ploskostnogo snosa po obnazhennym kornyam rasteniy [Estimation of the rate of planar drift According to bare roots of plants]. Geomorfologiya [Geomorphology].1982, no. 2, pp. 79—83.
  15. Ramzaev F.S. Rasteniya kak pokazateli intensivnosti erozii [Plants as Indicators of Erosion Intensity]. Botanicheskiy zhurnal [Botanical Journal]. Moscow, 1956, vol. 41, no. 3, pp. 371—379.

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GEO-ENVIRONMENTAL DUE DILIGENCE AIMED AT SELECTION OF SITES DESIGNATED FOR ACCOMMODATION OF MOBILE GAS TURBINE POWER PLANTS IN RECREATIONAL LANDS

Вестник МГСУ 5/2012
  • Bryukhan' Fedor Fedorovich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MSUCE) Professor, Doctor of Technical Sciences, +7 (495) 922-83-19, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MSUCE), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; Этот e-mail адрес защищен от спам-ботов, для его просмотра у Вас должен быть включен Javascript .
  • Kos'kin Igor' Olegovich - Scientific and Production Association Gidrotehproekt Open Joint Stock Company Leading Engineer, Scientific and Production Association Gidrotehproekt Open Joint Stock Company, 55a Oktyabr'skaya Str., Valday City, Novgorod Region, 175400, Russian Federation; Этот e-mail адрес защищен от спам-ботов, для его просмотра у Вас должен быть включен Javascript .

Страницы 143 - 149

Mobile gas turbine plants (MGTP) are the key sources of power designated to improve the safety of power supply in case of power deficit. In Russia, their pilot launch was initiated 5 - 6 years ago, and since then, they have demonstrated their high efficiency. In view of the upcoming Winter Olympic Games, organizations responsible for continuous power supply have resolved to build three MGTPs in Sochi. As Sochi is located in the natural area of preferential protection that has been granted Federal significance, construction and operation of the aforementioned facilities requires a detailed geo-environmental due diligence. Significant efforts have been exerted to substantiate the accommodation of MGTPs in three different sites and to identify the maximal number of power generators per site with account for the ecological restrictions imposed onto the natural areas of preferential protection.
The impact produced by MGTPs on the environment depends on their technological features and the appropriate natural and anthropogenic properties of their sites and adjacent lands. Therefore, selection of new sites must be backed by the assessment of negative consequences. This requirement applies mainly to recreational lands. Recent sources report that the principal factors of negative impact of MGTPs include the chemical pollution of the ambient air and the noise pollution of residential buildings located in the immediate proximity to MGTPs. Factors of secondary importance include the pollution of surface and underground waters, soils, intrusion into the geological environment, production of waste, thermal and electromagnetic pollutions.
The authors assess different factors of impact produced by MGTPs on the environment. As a result of the geo-ecological due diligence it has been discovered that the maximal number of power generators per site must not exceed 2-4, if the oxide emission technology is employed. At the same time, failure to employ the above technology must prevent any MGTPs from being installed there. Noise pollution assessments have demonstrated that acceptable noise intensity will be exceeded at the distance of up to 300 meters from the MGTP. Therefore, construction of MGTPs requires noise protection arrangements, for example, installation of specialized noise-absorbing fences or screens. It is noteworthy that soil pollution, geological environment pollution, thermal and electromagnetic pollution may be disregarded due to inconsiderable period of time while MGTPs are in operation. Adjusted calculations and assessments are to be made at the stage of the project development.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2012.5.143 - 149

Библиографический список
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  3. Viktor de Biasi. Mobil’naya GTU MOBILEPAC. Vyrabotka 25 MVt elektroenergii v den’ dostavki na mesto [Mobile GTU MOBILEPAC. Production of 25 MW of Electricity on the Day of Delivery onto the Location]. Gazoturbinnye tekhnologii [Gas Turbine Technologies], 2006, no. 1, pp. 26—29.
  4. OND-86. Metodika rascheta kontsentratsiy v atmosfernom vozdukhe vrednykh veshchestv, soderzhashchihsya v vybrosakh predpriyatiy [Methods of Calculating the Concentrations of Harmful Substances in Emissions of Enterprises]. Leningrad, Gidrometeoizdat Publ., 1987, 93 p.
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  6. SN 2.2.4/2.1.8.562-96. Shum na rabochikh mestakh, v pomeshcheniyakh zhilykh, obshchestvennykh zdaniy i na territorii zhiloy zastroyki [Sanitary Norms 2.2.4/2.1.8.562-96. Noise at Workplaces, in Residential and Public Buildings and Residential Areas]. Goskomsanyepidnadzor Rossii [State Committee of Russia in charge of Sanitary and Epidemiological Supervision], Moscow, 1996.
  7. SNiP 23-03—2003. Zashchita ot shuma [Construction Norms and Rules 23-03—2003. Noise Protection]. St.Petersburg, DEAN Publ., 2004, 74 p.
  8. Cheremikina E.A. Ranzhirovanie tipov vozdeystviy mobil’nykh pikovykh gazoturbinnykh elektrostantsiy na komponenty prirodnoy sredy po stepeni ikh znachimosti [Ranking the Types of Impacts of Peak-Load Mobile Gas Turbine Power Plants Produced on Constituents of the Environment Based on Their Significance] Sbornik dokladov 7-y Vserossiyskoy nauchno-tehnicheskoy konferentsii «Sovremennye problemy ekologii» [Proceedings of the 7th All-Russian Scientific Conference «Contemporary Problems of Ecology»]. Tula, 2010, pp. 39—41.
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ASSESSMENT OF THE CHEMICAL POLLUTION OF THE SOIL, GROUND AND BOTTOM SEDIMENTS AT KLEN GOLD AND SILVER DEPOSIT

Вестник МГСУ 5/2012
  • Bryukhan' Fedor Fedorovich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MSUCE) Professor, Doctor of Technical Sciences, +7 (495) 922-83-19, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MSUCE), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; Этот e-mail адрес защищен от спам-ботов, для его просмотра у Вас должен быть включен Javascript .
  • Lebedev Viktor Vadimovich - Regional'naya Gornorudnaya Kompaniya Open Joint Stock Company project manager +7 (495) 777-31-04, Regional'naya Gornorudnaya Kompaniya Open Joint Stock Company, Building 1, 4 Sadovnicheskaya St., Moscow, 115035, Russian Federation; Этот e-mail адрес защищен от спам-ботов, для его просмотра у Вас должен быть включен Javascript .

Страницы 150 - 155

Currently, prospecting and design-related works are performed prior to the upcoming launch of mining operations at Klen gold and silver deposit in Chukot Autonomous District. The anthropogenic impact of the geological exploration in this intact territory has been produced since 1984. A considerable amount of borehole drilling, prospecting, road building, and temporary housing development has been performed. The engineering research, including ecological surveys, has been completed to assess the ecological impact of upcoming exploratory and mining operations at the deposit. Assessment of the geochemical condition of the landscape constituents, including the soil, ground and bottom sediments is of special importance in terms of their engineering protection and rational management of the natural environment.
The above assessments were based on the field sampling made by «Sibgeoconsulting», CJSC (Krasnoyarsk) and the laboratory research made by accredited laboratories of Federal State Unitary Geological Enterprise «Urangeolograzvedka» (Irkutsk) and «Krasnoyarskgeologiya» (Krasnoyarsk). The analysis of the chemical pollution of soils, ground and bottom sediments is based on the examination of 30 samples.
Peculiarities of the chemical composition of samples extracted at the deposit were identified. It has been discovered that pH values of the soil vary from 5.1 to 7.3. The concentration of metal in bottom sediments exceeds its concentration in the soil by far. Almost all irregular features of the sample water in the whole territory of the deposit are caused by the anthropogenic impact. In general, the metal content in soils, ground and bottom sediments within the territory of the deposit is slightly different from the regular clarke.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2012.5.150 - 155

Библиографический список
  1. SNiP 11-02—96. Inzhenernye izyskaniya dlya stroitel’stva. Osnovnye polozheniya [Construction Norms and Rules 11-02—96. Engineering Surveying for Construction Purposes. Basic Provisions]. Moscow, Ministry of Construction of the Russian Federation, 1997, 44 p.
  2. SP 11-102—97. Inzhenerno-ehkologicheskie izyskaniya dlya stroitel’stva [Construction Rules 11-102—97. Engineering and Environmental Surveying for Construction]. Moscow, PNIIIS [Production, Scientific and Research Institute of Engineering Surveys in Construction], 1997, 41 p.
  3. Orlov D.S., Sadovnikova L.K., Suhanova N.I. Himiya pochv [Soil Chemistry]. Moscow, Vysshaya Shkola Publ., 2005, 558 p.
  4. Bowen H.J.M. Environmental Chemistry of the Elements. New York, Academiс Press, 1979, 333 p.
  5. Bryukhan’ A.F. Indikatory tekhnogennogo zagryazneniya landshaftov promyshlennymi predpriyatiyami [Indicators of Industrial Pollution of Landscapes by Industrial Enterprises]. Proceedings of the 7th All-Russian Scientific Conference «Modern Problems of Ecology»]. Tula, 2010, pp. 3—8.

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Experimental evaluation of drainage filters sealing in peat soils

Вестник МГСУ 2/2014
  • Nevzorov Aleksandr Leonidovich - Northern (Arctic) Federal University named after M.V. Lomonosov (SAFU) Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor, Head, Department of Engineering Geology, Bases and Foundations, Northern (Arctic) Federal University named after M.V. Lomonosov (SAFU), 17 Severnaya Dvina Emb., Arkhangelsk, 163002, Russian Federation; Этот e-mail адрес защищен от спам-ботов, для его просмотра у Вас должен быть включен Javascript .
  • Zaborskaya Ol'ga Mikhaylovna - Northern (Arctic) Federal University named after M.V. Lomonosov (SAFU) Senior Lecturer, Department of Structural Mechanics and Strength of Materials, Northern (Arctic) Federal University named after M.V. Lomonosov (SAFU), 17 Severnaya Dvina Emb., Arkhangelsk, 163002, Russian Federation; Этот e-mail адрес защищен от спам-ботов, для его просмотра у Вас должен быть включен Javascript .
  • Nikitin Andrey Viktorovich - Northern (Arctic) Federal University named after M.V. Lomonosov (SAFU) Candidate of Technical Sciences, Associate Professor, Department of Enginee, Northern (Arctic) Federal University named after M.V. Lomonosov (SAFU), 17 Severnaya Dvina Emb., Arkhangelsk, 163002, Russian Federation; Этот e-mail адрес защищен от спам-ботов, для его просмотра у Вас должен быть включен Javascript .

Страницы 84-90

The article deals with research results of the sealing of pores in drainage filters by organic particles. Permeability tests were carried out with the constant gradient 1.5. The water flow through the sample of soil was top-down.The tests were carried out with 2 types of samples: the first part of samples had layers (from up to down) 300 mm peat and 2 layers of geotextile, the second part consisted of 250 mm peat, 200 mm fine sand and 2 layers of geotextile. Well decomposed peatsamples were used. Peat had the following characteristics: density is 1,05...1,06 g/cm3, specific density — 1,53...1,56 g/cm3, void ratio — 12,0...12,5. The duration of each test was 15 days. During testing the hydraulic conductivity of samples was decreased by 1.3...1.9.After completing the tests the hydraulic conductivity of sand and geotextile were measured. The content of organic matter in geotextile and fine sand was determined as well. Dry mass of organic matter in the first layer of geotextile in the first type of samples were 1,0…1,3 g per 75 cm2. The organic matter in the second layer of geotextile in the first type of samples and in the first layer of geotextile in the second type wasn’t exposed. Fine sands protected the drainage geotextile as a result of sealing of pore space of sands by organic matter.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2014.2.84-90

Библиографический список
  1. Emel'yanova T.Ya., Kramarenko V.V. Obosnovanie metodiki izucheniya deformatsionnykh svoystv torfa s uchetom izmeneniya stepeni ego razlozheniya [Substantiation of the Study Method of Deformation Properties of Peat Taking into Account the Changes in its Decomposition Degree]. Izvestiya Tomskogo politekhnicheskogo universiteta [Proceedings of Tomsk Polytechnic University]. 2004, no. 5, pp. 54—57.
  2. Kramarenko V.V., Emel'yanova T.Ya. Kharakteristika fizicheskikh svoystv verkhovykh torfov Tomskoy oblasti [Description of the Physical Properties of High-moor Peat in Tomsk Region]. Vestnik Tomskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta [Proceedings of Tomsk State University]. 2009, no. 322, pp. 265—272.
  3. Ivanov K.Å. Vodoobmen v bolotnykh landshaftakh [Water Cycle in Moor Landscapes]. Leningrad, Gidrometeoizdat Publ., 1975, 280 p.
  4. Drozd P.À. Sel'skokhozyaystvennye dorogi na bolotakh [Agricultural Roads on Moors]. Minsk, Uradzhay Publ., 1966, 167 p.
  5. Nevzorov À.L., Nikitin À.V., Zarychevnych À.V. Gorod na bolote: monografiya [A City on the Bog: Monograph]. Northern (Arctic) Federal University named after M.V. Lomonosov. Arkhangelsk, NArFU Publ., 2012, 157 p.
  6. Dimukhametov M.Sh., Dimukhametov D.M. Fiziko-mekhanicheskie svoystva zatorfovannykh gruntov Kamskoy doliny g. Permi i ikh izmenenie v rezul'tate deystviya prigruzki [Physical and Mechanical Properties of Peat of Kama Valley in Perm City and their Changes as a Result of Pressure Action]. Vestnik Permskogo universiteta [Proceedings of Perm State University]. 2009, no. 11, pp. 94—107.
  7. Bugay N.G., Krivonog A.I., Krivonog V.V., Fridrikhson V.L. Voloknisto-poristye materialy iz polimernykh volokon v meliorativnom i gidrotekhnicheskom stroitel'stve i pri ochistke vody [Fibrous-porous Materials of Polymer Fibers in Soil Reclamation and Hydraulic Engineering Construction and Water Treatment]. Prikladnaya gidromekhanika [Applied Hydromechanics]. 2007, vol. 9, no. 2—3, pp. 37—51.
  8. Chernyaev E.V. Srok sluzhby geotekstil'nykh materialov [Lifetime of Geotextile Materials]. Put' i putevoe khozyaystvo [Road and Track Facilities]. 2010, no. 7, pp. 37—39.
  9. Tkach V.V. Drenazhnyy fil'tr iz netkanogo polotna [Drainage from Nonwoven Materials]. Gidrotekhnika i melioratsiya [Hydraulic Engineering and Land Reclamation]. 1983, no.10, pp. 76—77.
  10. Bugay N.G., Tkach V.V., Fridrikhson V.L. Podbor tkanykh i netkanykh ZFM pri ispol'zovanii ikh v trubchatykh drenazhakh s fil'truyushchey obsypkoy [Selection of Woven and Nonwoven Materials Applied in Tubular Drainage with Permeable Package]. Gidrotekhnika i melioratsiya [Hydraulic Engineering and Land Reclamation]. 1983, no. 6, pp. 52—53.

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Principles of classification of soilmasses for construction purposes

Вестник МГСУ 9/2013
  • Chernyshev Sergey Nikolaevich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU) Doctor of Geologo-Mineralogical Sciences, Professor, Department of Engineering Geology and Geoecology, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; Этот e-mail адрес защищен от спам-ботов, для его просмотра у Вас должен быть включен Javascript .

Страницы 41-46

The author proposes original grounds for the classification of the full range of soil masses as a supplement to the classification of soils provided in GOST 25100—2011. The author proposes four classes of soil masses, each class having several types and sub-types of soils. The classification will improve the accuracy of engineering and geological surveys and computer models of the geological environment developed for the purpose of design of buildings and structures. The author offers a classification of soils to identify the geological environment comprising one or more types of soil which are genetically and structurally distinct. Any soil mass type differs by its origin, and, as a consequence, its internal geological structure, stress-strain state and inherent geological processes. Any genetically isolated type of soils a specific program of research, both in terms of methods and in terms of density testing in the point of sampling. The behavior of rock masses together with the engineering structure is pre-determined by the properties of the rock, its relative position (geological structure), a network of cracks and other weakening factors, and the natural state of stress. The fracture network is of paramount importance. Cracks are characterized by direction, length, width, surface roughness of walls, and a distance between parallel cracks.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2013.9.41-46

Библиографический список
  1. Pashkin E.M., Kagan A.A., Krivonogova N.F.; Pashkina E.M., editor. Terminologicheskiy spravochnik po inzhenernoy geologii [Reference Book of Terms of Engineering Geology]. Moscow, KDU Publ., 2011, 952 p.
  2. Panyukov P.N. Inzhenernaya geologiya [Engineering Geology]. Moscow, Gosgortekhizdat Publ., 1962.
  3. Bondarik G.K. Teoriya geologicheskogo polya [Geological Field Theory]. Moscow, MIMS Publ., 2002, 129 p.
  4. Belyi L.D. Obshie principial'nye polozheniya [General Principal Provisions]. In the book: Geologiya i plotiny [Geology and Dams]. Moscow — Leningrad, Gosenergoizdat Publ., 1959, pp. 9—19.
  5. Muller L. Der Felsbau. Ferdinand Enke Verlag. Stuttgart, 1963, 453 p.
  6. Bauduin C.M. Determination of Characteristic Values. In: U. Smoltczyk, editor, Geotechnical Engineering Handbook. Berlin, Ernst Publ., 2002, vol. I, pp. 17—50.
  7. Frank R., Kovarik J.B. Comparasion des niveaux de modele pour la resistance ultime des pieux sous charges axiales. Revue Francaise de Geotechnique. 2005, 110, pp. 12—25.
  8. Belyi L.D. Osnovy teorii inzhenerno-geologicheskogo kartirovaniya [Fundamentals of the Theory of Engineering Geological Mapping]. Moscow, Nauka Publ., 1964.

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INTERACTION OF A LONG PILE OF FINITE STIFFNESS WITH SURROUNDING SOIL AND FOUNDATION CAP

Вестник МГСУ 9/2015
  • Ter-Martirosyan Armen Zavenovich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU) Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor of the Department of Soil Mechanics and Geotechnics, Head of Research and Education Center «Geotechnics», Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation.
  • Ter-Martirosyan Zaven Grigor’evich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU) Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor, Department of Soil Mechanics and Geotechnics, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation.
  • Trinh Tuan Viet - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU) postgraduate student, Department of Soil Mechanics, Bases and Foundations, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation.

Страницы 72-83

The article presents the formulation and analytical solution to a quantification of stress strain state of a two-layer soil cylinder enclosing a long pile, interacting with the cap. The solution of the problem is considered for two cases: with and without account for the settlement of the heel and the underlying soil. In the first case, the article is offering equations for determining the stresses of pile’s body and the surrounding soil according to their hardness and the ratio of radiuses of the pile and the surrounding soil cylinder, as well as formulating for determining equivalent deformation modulus of the system “cap-pile-surrounding soil” (the system). Assessing the carrying capacity of the soil under pile’s heel is of great necessity. In the second case, the article is solving a second-order differential equation. We gave the formulas for determining the stresses of the pile at its top and heel, as well as the variation of stresses along the pile’s body. The article is also formulating for determining the settlement of the foundation cap and equivalent deformation modulus of the system. It is shown that, pushing the pile into underlying layer results in the reducing of equivalent modulus of the system.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2015.9.72-83

Библиографический список
  1. Nadai A. Theory of Flow and Fracture of Solids. Vol. 1. New York, McGraw-Hill, 1950, 572 p.
  2. Florin V.A. Osnovy mekhanicheskikh gruntov [Fundamentals of Mechanical Soil]. Vol. 1. Moscow, Gosstroyizdat Publ., 1959, 356 p. (In Russian)
  3. Telichenko V.I., Ter-Martirosyan Z.G. Vzaimodeystvie svai bol’shoy dliny s nelineyno deformiruemym massivom grunta [Interaction between Long Piles and the Soil Body Exposed to NonLinear Deformations]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2012, no. 4, pp. 22—27. (In Russian)
  4. Ter-Martirosyan Z.G., Nguen Zang Nam. Vzaimodeystvie svay bol’shoy dliny s neodnorodnym massivom s uchetom nelineynykh i reologicheskikh svoystv gruntov [Interaction between Long Piles and a Heterogeneous Massif with Account for Non-linear and Rheological Properties of Soils]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2008, no. 2, pp. 3—14. (In Russian)
  5. Ter-Martirosyan Z.G., Trinh Tuan Viet. Vzaimodeystvie odinochnoy dlinoy svai s osnovaniem s uchetom szhimaemosti stvola svai [Interaction between a Single Long Pile and the Bedding with Account for Compressibility of the Pile Shaft]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2011, no. 8, pp. 104—110. (In Russian)
  6. Mattes N.S., Poulos H.G. Settlement of Single Compressible Pile. Journal SoilMech. Foundation ASCE. 1969, vol. 95, no. 1, pp. 189—208.
  7. Ter-Martirosyan Z.G. Mekhanika gruntov [Soil Mechanics]. Moscow, ASV Publ., 2009, 550 p. (In Russian)
  8. Ter-Martirosyan A.Z., Ter-Martirosyan Z.G., Trinh Tuan Viet, Luzin I.N. Osadka i nesushchaya sposobnost’ dlinnoy svai [Settlement and Bearing Capacity of Long Pile]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2015, no. 5, pp. 52—60. (In Russian)
  9. Coyle H.M., Reese L.C. Load Transfer for Axially Loaded Piles in Clay. Journal Soil Mechanics and Foundation Division, ASCE. March1996, vol. 92, no. 2, pp. 1—26.
  10. Bartolomey A.A., Omel’chak I.M., Yushkov B.S. Prognoz osadok svaynykh fundamentov [Forecasting the Settlement of Pile Foundation]. Moscow, Stroyizdat Publ., 1994, 384 p. (In Russian)
  11. Randolph M.F., Wroth C.P. Analysis of Deformation of Vertically Loaded Piles. Journal of the Geotechnical Engineering Division, American Society of Civil Engineers. 1978, vol. 104, no. 12, pp. 1465—1488.
  12. Van Impe W.F. Deformations of Deep Foundations. Proc. 10th Eur. Conf. SM & Found. Eng., Florence. 1991, vol. 3, pp. 1031—1062.
  13. Prakash S., Sharma H.D. Pile Foundation in Engineering Practice. John Wiley & Sons, 1990, 768 p.
  14. Malyshev M.V., Nikitina N.S. Raschet osadok fundamentov pri nelineynoy zavisimosti mezhdu napryazheniyami i deformatsiyami v gruntakh [Calculation of the Base Settlements in Non-Linear Relation between Stresses and Displacements of Soil]. Osnovaniya, fundamenty i mekhanika gruntov [Bases, Foundations and Soil Mechanics]. 1982, no. 2, pp. 21—25. (In Russian)
  15. Hansen J.B. Revised and Extended Formula for Bearing Capacity. Bulletin 28. Danish Geotechnical Institute, Copenhagen, 1970, pp. 5—11.
  16. Joseph E.B. Foundation Analysis and Design. McGraw-Hill, Inc, 1997, 1240 p.
  17. Ter-Martirosyan Z.G., Strunin P.V., Trinh Tuan Viet. Szhimaemost’ materiala svai pri opredelenii osadki v svaynom fundamente [The Influence of the Compressibility of Pile Material in Determining the Settlement of Pile Foundation]. Zhilishchnoe stroitel’stvo [Housing Construction]. 2012, no. 10, pp. 13—15. (In Russian)
  18. Vijayvergiya V.N. Load-Movement Characteristics of Piles. Proc. Port 77 conference, American Society of Civil Engineers, Long Beach, CA, March 1977, pp. 269—284.
  19. Seed H.B., Reese L.C. The Action of Soft Clay along Friction Piles. Trans., ASCE. 1957, vol. 122, no. 1, pp. 731—754.
  20. Booker J., Poulos H.G. Analysis of Creep Settlement of Pile Foundation. Journal Geotechnical Engineering division. ASCE. 1976, vol. 102, no. 1, pp. 1—14.
  21. Poulos H.G., Davis E.H. Pile Foundation Analysis and Design. New York, John Wiley and Sons, 1980, 397 p.

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Interaction of anchors and the surrounding soil with accountfor elastic-plastic properties

Вестник МГСУ 7/2015
  • Ter-Martirosyan Zaven Grigor’evich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU) Doctor of Technical Science, Professor of the Department of Soil Mechanics and Geotechnics, Main Researcher at the Research and Education Center “Geotechnics”, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; Этот e-mail адрес защищен от спам-ботов, для его просмотра у Вас должен быть включен Javascript .
  • Avanesov Vadim Sergeevich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) postgraduate student, Department of Soil Mechanics and Geotechnics, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; +7 (495) 287-49-14 (ext. 14-25); Этот e-mail адрес защищен от спам-ботов, для его просмотра у Вас должен быть включен Javascript .

Страницы 47-56

In this paper the problem of interaction between grouted anchor and the surrounding soil body with account for its elastic-plastic properties is solved by analytical and numerical methods. Tensile loads are exerted on a grouted anchor placed in homogeneous soil body. Under ultimate loads occurs the failure of the system “anchor-surrounding soil”. This research is based on the elastic-plastic model designed by Timoshenko. The problem of interaction between grouted anchor and the surrounding soil is solved in various design conditions, such as constant structural shear strength, account for anchor stiffness, linear variable structural shear strength. The solutions of these problems can be used for quantitative estimation of the stress-strain state of the system. This estimation makes it possible to calculate the displacements of anchors and their bearing capacity. It is shown that displacements significantly depend on physico-mechanical properties of the surrounding soil, geometrical properties of the anchor, selection of design model. The analysis demonstrates that load-displacement curve has clear nonlinearity and unrestrictedly increases at approaching the ultimate stress. The account for anchor stiffness insignificantly influences the obtained solutions and account for it may be neglected. The obtained equations also show that the displacement of the anchor increases with widening of the diameter at constant dimensional ratio of the cylindrical model. It is demonstrated that the ultimate uplift capacity is dependent on the dimensions of anchors and physico-mechanical properties of soil. Analytical solutions are compared to the results of the Finite Element Analysis (FEA) in the computer program Plaxis. The comparison of analytical and numerical solutions has close precision for the magnitude of anchor displacement and ultimate loads.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2015.7.47-56

Библиографический список
  1. Chim-oye W., Marumdee N. Estimation of Uplift Pile Capacity in the Sand Layers. International Transaction Journal of Engineering, Management, & Applied Sciences & Technologies. 2013, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 57—65.
  2. Yimsiri S., Soga K., Yoshizaki K., Dasari G.R., O’Rourke T.D. Lateral and Upward Soil-Pipeline Interactions in Sand for Deep Embedment Conditions. Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering. 2004, vol. 130, no. 8, pp. 830—842. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)1090-0241(2004)130:8(830).
  3. Zhang B., Benmokrane B., Chennouf A., Mukhopadhyaya P., El-Safty P. Tensile Behavior of FRP Tendons for Prestressed Ground Anchors. Journal of Composites for Construction. 2001, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 85—93. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)1090-0268(2001)5:2(85).
  4. Hoyt R.M., Clemence S.P. Uplift Capacity of Helical Anchors in Soil. 12th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering. 1989, 12 p.
  5. Hanna A., Sabry M. Trends in Pullout Behavior of Batter Piles in Sand. Proceeding of the 82 Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board. 2003, 13 p.
  6. Thorne C.P., Wang C.X., Carter J.P. Uplift Capacity of Rapidly Loaded Strip Anchors in Uniform Strength Clay. Geotechnique. 2004, vol. 54, no. 8, pp. 507—517. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1680/geot.2004.54.8.507
  7. Young J. Uplift Capacity and Displacement of Helical Anchors in Cohesive Soil. A Thesis submitted to Oregon State University, 2012. Available at: http://hdl.handle.net/1957/29487. Date of access: 11.05.2015.
  8. Briyo J.L., Pauers U.F., Uezerbay D.I. Dolzhny li in”ektsionnye gruntovye ankery imet’ nebol’shuyu dlinu zadelki tyagi? [Should Grouted Anchors Have Short Tendon Bond Length?]. Geotekhnika [Geotechnical Engineering]. 2012, no. 5, pp. 34—55. (In Russian)
  9. Briaud J.L., Griffin R., Yeung A., Soto A., Suroor A., Park H. Long-Term Behavior of Ground Anchors and Tieback Walls. Texas A&M Transportation Institute, 1998, 280 p.
  10. Vyalov S.S. Reologicheskie osnovy mekhaniki gruntov [Rheological Principles of Soil Mechanics]. Moscow, Vysshaya shkola Publ., 1978, 447 p. (In Russian)
  11. Sabatini P.J., Pass D.G., Bachus R.C. Ground Anchors and Anchored Systems. Geotechnical Engineering Circular no. 4. 1999, 281 p.
  12. Barley A.D., Windsor C.R. Recent Advances in Ground Anchor and Ground Reinforcement Technology with Reference to the Development of the Art. GeoEng. 2000, vol. 1, pp. 1048—1095.
  13. Copstead R.L., Studier D.D. An Earth Anchor System: Installation and Design Guide. United States Department of Agriculture. 1990, 35 p.
  14. Zheng J.J., Dai J.G. Prediction of the Nonlinear Pull-Out Response of FRP Ground Anchors Using an Analytical Transfer Matrix Method. Engineering Structures. 2014, vol. 81, pp. 377—985. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.engstruct.2014.10.008.
  15. Azari B., Fatahi B., Khabbaz H. Assessment of the Elastic-Viscoplastic Behavior of Soft Soils Improved with Vertical Drains Capturing Reduced Shear Strength of a Disturbed Zone. International Journal of Geomechanics. 2014, vol. 40, 15 p. Available at: http://www.researchgate.net/publication/271273415_Assessment_of_the_Elastic-Viscoplastic_Behavior_of_Soft_Soils_Improved_with_Vertical_Drains_Capturing_Reduced_Shear_Strength_of_a_Disturbed_Zone. Date of access: 11.05.2015. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)GM.1943-5622.0000448 , B4014001.
  16. Timoshenko S.P., Goodier J.N. Theory of Elasticity. N.Y. : McGraw&Hill, 1970, 608 p.
  17. Ter-Martirosyan Z.G., Ter-Martirosyan A.Z. Reologicheskie svoystva gruntov pri sdvige [Rheological Properties of Soils while Shearing]. Osnovaniya, fundamenty i mekhanika gruntov [Bases, Foundations and Soil Mechanics]. 2012, no. 6, pp. 9—13. (In Russian)
  18. Ter-Martirosyan Z.G., Nguen Zang Nam. Vzaimodeystvie svay bol’shoy dliny s neodnorodnym massivom s uchetom nelineynykh i reologicheskikh svoystv gruntov [Interaction of Long Piles with a Heterogeneous Massif with Account for Non-linear and Rheological Properties of Soils]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow Stte University of Civil Engineering]. 2008, no. 2, pp. 3—14. (In Russian)
  19. Ter-Martirosyan Z.G., Avanesov V.S. Vzaimodeystvie ankerov s okruzhayushchim gruntom s uchetom polzuchesti i strukturnoy prochnosti [Interaction between Anchors and Surrounding Soil with Account for Creep and Structural Shear Strength]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2014, no. 10, pp. 75—86. (In Russian)
  20. Ter-Martirosyan Z.G. Mekhanika gruntov [Soil Mechanics]. Moscow, ASV Publ, 2009, 550 p. (In Russian)
  21. Dinakar K.N., Prasad S.K. Behaviour of Tie Back Sheet Pile Wall for Deep Excavation Using Plaxis. International Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology. 2014, vol. 3, no. 6, pp. 97—103.

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THE ROLE OF THE "DENSITY - MOISTURE" OF SANDY SOILS IN FORMATION OF EFFICIENT STRESSES FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF THE PHYSICOCHEMICAL THEORY

Вестник МГСУ 12/2012
  • Potapov Aleksandr Dmitrievich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor, Head, Department of Engineering Geology and Geoecology, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; Этот e-mail адрес защищен от спам-ботов, для его просмотра у Вас должен быть включен Javascript .
  • Potapov Ivan Aleksandrovich - Scientific and Research Institute of Emergency Healthcare named after N.V. Sklifosovskiy engineer, Scientific and Research Institute of Emergency Healthcare named after N.V. Sklifosovskiy, ; Этот e-mail адрес защищен от спам-ботов, для его просмотра у Вас должен быть включен Javascript .
  • Shimenkova Anastasiya Anatol'evna - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) engineer, Department of Engineering Geology and Geoecology, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; Этот e-mail адрес защищен от спам-ботов, для его просмотра у Вас должен быть включен Javascript .

Страницы 104 - 110

The paper deals with the formation of limiting bulk densities of sandy soils of different origin against different values of humidity and varying structural features. The authors have identified that the optimum moisture content is typical for sands and clays exposed to mechanical compaction. The nature of this dependence is different from the one between the density and humidity of clay soils. These differences are driven by the peculiarities of formation of bound water shells in the event of low humidity. A linear dependence between the optimal humidity of sands and maximal molecular moisture capacity has been identified. The authors make a statement based on the proven de
pendence between the maximal molecular moisture capacity and the morphology of sands. Their statement is that the formation of bound water shells in the low humidity environment is dependent not only on the fineness of particles, but, to a higher extent, on the peculiarities of the shape and the nature of the surface of sand grains. Another important factor of impact on the density of sandy soils in the natural environment consists in their humidity.
Multiple researchers believe that the correlation between density and humidity of sands is to be the subject of research. It is noteworthy that limit densities of air-dried sands are to be assessed. Therefore, any sands have some particular bound water content, and the lower the intensity of treatment of sand particles, the higher the water content. The findings demonstrate that in most cases typical coagulatory and transitory contacts of non-saturated sands are to be considered in line with the ideas expressed by V.I. Osipov, as the above contacts determine the formation of effective stresses from the prospective of the physicochemical theory.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2012.12.104 - 110

Библиографический список
  1. Osipov V.I. Fiziko-khimicheskaya teoriya effektivnykh napryazheniy v gruntakh [Physicochemical Theory of Effective Stresses in Soils]. IGE RAN [Institute of Geo-ecology of the Russian Academy of Sciences]. Moscow, IFZ RAN [Institute of Physics of the Earth (IPE)], 2012, 74 p.
  2. Potapov A.D., Potapov I.A., Shimenkova A.A. Nekotorye aspekty primenimosti k peschanym gruntam polozheniy fi ziko-khimicheskoy teorii effektivnykh napryazheniy [Particular Aspects of Applicability of Provisions of the Physical and Chemical Theory of Effective Stresses to Sandy Soils]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2012, no. 10, pp. 229—239.
  3. Potapov I.A., Potapov A.D., Shimenkova A.A. Formirovanie raznykh tipov energeticheskikh kontaktov v peschanykh gruntakh v aspekte fi ziko-khimicheskoy teorii effektivnykh napryazheniy [Formation of Different Types of Energy Contacts in Sandy Soils in the Framework of the Physicochemical Theory of Effective Stresses]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2012, no. 11, pp. 210—218.
  4. Potapov I.A., Shimenkova A.A., Potapov A.D. Zavisimost’ suffozionnoy ustoychivosti peschanykh gruntov razlichnogo genezisa ot tipa fi l’trata [Dependence of Suffosion Stability of Sandy Soils of Various Geneses on the Type of Filtrate]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2012, no. 5, pp. 79—86.
  5. Potapov A.D. Morfologicheskoe izuchenie peskov razlichnogo genezisa v inzhenerno-geologicheskikh tselyakh [Morphological Research of Sands of Various Geneses for Engineering Geology Purposes]. Moscow, PNIIIS [Production, Scientific and Research Institute of Engineering Surveying in Construction], 1982, 243 p.
  6. Dudler I.V. Znachenie ponyatiya «plotnost’ — vlazhnost’» dlya izucheniya i otsenki fi ziko-mekhanicheskikh svoystv peschanykh gruntov [Meaning of the Notion of “Density-Humidity” in the Mastering and Assessment of Physical-mechanical Properties of Sandy Soils]. Voprosy inzhenernoy geologii [Issues of Engineering Geology]. Moscow, MISI Publ., 1977, 7 p.
  7. Anan’ev V.P., Potapov A.D. Inzhenernaya geologiya [Engineering Geology]. Moscow, Vyssh. shk. publ., 2008, 260 p.
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  9. Kabai J. The Compatibility of Sands and Sandy Gravels. Techn. University Budapest. 1968, vol. 63, 6 p.
  10. Trofimov V.T., editor. Gruntovedenie [Soil Science]. Moscow, Nauka Publ., 2005, 1024 p.

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Settlement and bearingcapacity of long pile

Вестник МГСУ 5/2015
  • Ter-Martirosyan Armen Zavenovich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) Candidate of Technical Sciences, Associate Professor, Department of Soil Mechanics and Geotechnies, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; Этот e-mail адрес защищен от спам-ботов, для его просмотра у Вас должен быть включен Javascript .
  • Ter-Martirosyan Zaven Grigor’evich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU) Doctor of Technical Science, Professor of the Department of Soil Mechanics and Geotechnics, Main Researcher at the Research and Education Center “Geotechnics”, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; Этот e-mail адрес защищен от спам-ботов, для его просмотра у Вас должен быть включен Javascript .
  • Trinh Tuan Viet - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) postgraduate student, Department of Soil Mechanics and Geotech- nies, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; Этот e-mail адрес защищен от спам-ботов, для его просмотра у Вас должен быть включен Javascript .
  • Luzin Ivan Nikolaevich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) postgraduate student, Department of Soil Mechanics and Geotechnies, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; Этот e-mail адрес защищен от спам-ботов, для его просмотра у Вас должен быть включен Javascript .

Страницы 52-61

When a long pile is interacting with the soil, the combined force applied to the pile head is distributed among the side face and the pile toe inhomogeneously. The toe gets not more than 30 % from the general force, which doesn’t let using the reserves of the bearing capacity of relatively firm soil under the fifth pile. Account for the depth of the pile toe and the dead load of the soil allows increasing the bearing capacity of the soil under the pile toe and decrease the pile settlement in general. For the quantitative estimation of these factors it is necessary to solve the task on the interaction of the rigid long pile with the surrounding soil, which includes under the pile toe, which is absolutely rigid round stamp.The article presents the formulation and analytical solution to a quantification of the settlement of a circular foundation with the due account for its depth, basing on the development of P. Mindlin’s studies as well as the interactions between a long rigid pile and surrounding soils, including under pile toe.It is proposed to compare the estimated value of stresses under the heel of pile with the initial critical load for the round foundation to check the condition that the estinated value is less than the intial critical one.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2015.5.52-61

Библиографический список
  1. Nadai A. Theory of Flow and Fracture of Solids. Vol. 1. New York, McGraw-Hill, 1950, 572 p.
  2. Florin V.A. Osnovy mekhanicheskikh gruntov [Fundamentals of Mechanical Soil].
  3. Vol. 1. Moscow, Gosstroyizdat Publ., 1959, 356 p. (In Russian)
  4. Telichenko V.I., Ter-Martirosyan Z.G. Vzaimodeystvie svai bol’shoy dliny s nelineyno deformiruemym massivom grunta [Interaction between Long Piles and the Soil Body Exposed to Non-Linear Deformations]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2012, no. 4, pp. 22—27. (In Russian)
  5. Ter-Martirosyan Z.G., Nguen Zang Nam. Vzaimodeystvie svay bol’shoy dliny s neodnorodnym massivom s uchetom nelineynykh i reologicheskikh svoystv gruntov [Interaction between Long Piles and a Heterogeneous Massif with Account for Non-linear and Rheological Properties of Soils]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2008, no. 2, pp. 3—14. (In Russian)
  6. Ter-Martirosyan Z.G., Trinh Tuan Viet. Vzaimodeystvie odinochnoy dlinoy svai s osnovaniem s uchetom szhimaemosti stvola svai [Interaction between a Single Long Pile and the Bedding with Account for Compressibility of the Pile Shaft]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2011, no. 8, pp. 104—111. (In Russian)
  7. Mattes N.S., Poulos H.G. Settlement of Single Compressible Pile. Journal SoilMech. Foundation ASCE. 1969, vol. 95, no. 1, pp. 189—208.
  8. Ter-Martirosyan Z.G., Ter-Martirosyan A.Z., Sidorov V.V. Nachal’noe kriticheskoe davlenie pod podoshvoy kruglogo fundamenta i pod pyatoy buronabivnoy svai kruglogo secheniya [Initial Critical Stresses under the Sole of Round Foundation and under the Circular Bored Pile Toe]. Estestvennye i tekhnicheskie nauki [Journal Natural and Technical Sciences]. 2014, no. 11—12 (78), pp. 372—376. (In Russian)
  9. Bartolomey A.A., Omel’chak I.M., Yushkov B.S. Prognoz osadok svaynykh fundamentov [Forecasting the Settlement of Pile Foundation]. Moscow, Stroyizdat Publ., 1994, 384 p. (In Russian)
  10. Coyle H.M., Reese L.C. Load Transfer for Axially Loaded Piles in Clay. Journal Soil Mechanics and Foundation Division, ASCE. March1996, vol. 92, no. 2, pp. 1—26.
  11. Randolph M.F., Wroth C.P. Analysis of Deformation of Vertically Loaded Piles. Journal of the Geotechnical Engineering Division, American Society of Civil Engineers. 1978, vol. 104, no. 12, pp. 1465—1488.
  12. Van Impe W.F. Deformations of Deep Foundations. Proc. 10th Eur. Conf. SM & Found. Eng., Florence. 1991, vol. 3, pp. 1031—1062.
  13. Ter-Martirosyan Z.G. Mekhanika gruntov [Soil Mechanics]. Moscow, ASV Publ., 2009, 550 p. (In Russian)
  14. Prakash S., Sharma H.D. Pile Foundation in Engineering Practice. John Wiley & Sons, 1990, 768 p.
  15. Malyshev M.V., Nikitina N.S. Raschet osadok fundamentov pri nelineynoy zavisimosti mezhdu napryazheniyami i deformatsiyami v gruntakh [Calculation of the Base Settlements in Non-Linear Relation between Stresses and Displacements of Soil]. Osnovaniya, fundamenty i mekhanika gruntov [Bases, Foundations and Soil Mechanics]. 1982, no. 2, pp. 21—25. (In Russian)
  16. Joseph E.B. Foundation Analysis and Design. McGraw-Hill, Inc, 1997, 1240 p.
  17. Ter-Martirosyan Z.G., Strunin P.V., Trinh Tuan Viet. Szhimaemost’ materiala svai pri opredelenii osadki v svaynom fundamente [The Influence of the Compressibility of Pile Material in Determining the Settlement of Pile Foundation]. Zhilishchnoe stroitel’stvo [Housing Construction]. 2012, no. 10, pp. 13—15. (In Russian)
  18. Hansen J.B. Revised and Extended Formula for Bearing Capacity. Bulletin 28. Danish Geotechnical Institute, Copenhagen, 1970, pp. 5—11.
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  21. Poulos H.G., Davis E.H. Pile Foundation Analysis and Design. New York, John Wiley and Sons, 1980, 397 p.
  22. Seed H.B., Reese L.C. The Action of Soft Clay along Friction Piles. Trans., ASCE. 1957, vol. 122, no. 1, pp. 731—754.

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Method of determining the speed of sheet washout for design of structures on slopes

Вестник МГСУ 8/2014
  • Volodina Lyudmila Aleksandrovna - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) postgraduate student, Department of Urban Development and Environmental Safety, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; Этот e-mail адрес защищен от спам-ботов, для его просмотра у Вас должен быть включен Javascript .
  • Chernyshev Sergey Nikolaevich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) Doctor of Geological and Mineralogical Sciences, Professor, Department of Engineering Geology and Geoecology, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; +7 (499) 183-83-47; Этот e-mail адрес защищен от спам-ботов, для его просмотра у Вас должен быть включен Javascript .

Страницы 54-61

The authors present the study of sheet washout of soil relevant in the framework of the stability of structures, retaining walls and trays over them, pillars of stairs, power lines and other structures on the slopes. Flushing speed can be approximately defined using phytoindicational way, determining the depth of erosion of the soil near perennial plants, the roots of which are naked. This approach to determining the rate of sheet erosion has been used by many scientists. The techniques offered in their works were created to improve the agricultural use of the lands for the territories of Central Asia. In order to protect the structures in natural areas of Moscow, the authors suggested their methods. It is assumed that the beginning of the erosion process in the measuring point coincides with the beginning of tree growth. At this point its root neck was at the level of the earth. Thus, for the rate of erosion we accepted the height position of root neck of the tree. The measurement should be horizontal to the tree in connection with the retention of soil by the tree and "hill" formation on the top side of the tree and rich soil washout from the bottom side. The average annual rate of erosion can be calculated by determining the age of the tree and by measuring the excess of root neck above the surface of the slope. The age of the tree may be determined by the correlation of age with a diameter of a tree, measured at height of 1.3 m above the ground level. The average annual increase in the diameter of a tree can be defined on the stumps, available in the study area. When calculating the age of trees to clarify the diameters, it is recommended to make allowance for the thickness of the crust. It was noted that the study of the process of sheet washout should be made in condition of stability of influencing factors: climate, topography, geology, soils, vegetation and human activities. In order to validate the approach, the slopes of ravines in the Neskuchny Garden in Moscow were chosen. The selected slopes have similar climatic, geological, geomorphological, soil and phytological signs. This allows the authors to gather material for statistical analysis of the investigated process. In their experiment, the authors used lime trees and maples. Single measurement was made on elms and oaks. As an example, the authors present the results of measurements on site 1, located on the right side of the ravine Neskuchny Garden. A fairly high correlation coefficient (K=0.91) indicates strong linear relationship of flushing depth and the tree diameter and proves the validity of this method for approximate calculation of the depth of sheet washout.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2014.8.54-61

Библиографический список
  1. Zemlyanitskiy L.T. Ob erozii pochv v gornykh oblastyakh Yuzhnoy Kirgizii i Uzbekistana [On Soil Erosion in Mountainous Areas of South Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan]. Eroziya pochv: sbornik [Soil Erosion: Collection of Works]. Moscow, AN SSSR Publ., 1937, pp. 59—67.
  2. Gorelov S.K. Razvitie protsessov poverkhnostnogo smyva i lineynoy erozii v Tsentral'nom Kopetdage [Development Processes of Surface Runoff and Linear Erosion in the Central Kopetdagh]. Izvestiya ANSSSR. Seriya geograficheskaya [Proceedings ANSSSR. Geographical Series]. 1974, no. 4, pp. 90—97.
  3. Zharkova Yu.G., Petrov V.N. Opredelenie intensivnosti smyva po obnazhennym chastyam korney rasteniy [Determination of Washout Intensity According to the Exposed Parts of the Roots of Plants]. Eroziya pochv i ruslovye protsessy [Soil Erosion and Channel Processes]. Moscow, 1974, MGU Publ., no. 4, pp. 58—60.
  4. Pereslegina R.E. Issledovanie ploskostnogo poverkhnostnogo snosa v rayone yugozapadnogo poberezh'ya ozera Issyk-Kul' [Study of Planar Surface Drift near the Southwestern Shore of Lake Issyk-Kul]. Geomorfologiya [Geomorphology]. 1990, no. 3, pp. 90—99.
  5. Pereslegina R.E. Otsenka skorosti ploskostnogo snosa po obnazhennym kornyam rasteniy [Estimation of the rate of planar drift According to bare roots of plants]. Geomorfologiya [Geomorphology].1982, no. 2, pp. 79—83.
  6. Ivanov H.N. Osobennosti razvitiya erozionnykh protsessov na otkosakh zemlyanogo polotna avtomobil'nykh dorog [Erosion Processes Development Features on Slopes of Road Beds]. Geomorfologiya [Geomorphology]. 1988, no. 2, pp. 39—43.
  7. Makkaveev N.I., Chalov R.S., editors. Erozionnye protsessy [Erosion Processes]. Moscow, 1984, 256 p.
  8. Urban Soil Erosion and Sediment Control. Conservation Practices for Protecting and Enhancing Soil and Water Resources in Growing and Changing Communities. 2008, 14 p. Available at: http://www.conferences.uiuc.edu/ilriver/Documents/Urban_ErosionSediment_Control_2008.pdf. Date of access: 07.07.2014.
  9. Mirtskhulava Ts.E. Razmyv rusel i metodika otsenki ikh ustoychivosti [Сhannels Scour and Methods of their Sustainability Assessment]. Moscow, 1967, 179 p.
  10. Osipov V.I., Medvedev O.P., editors. Moskva: geologiya i gorod [Moscow: Geology and the City]. Moscow, 1997, 400 p.
  11. Kholyavko V. S., Globa-Mikhaylenko D. A. Dendrologiya i osnovy zelenogo stroitel'stva [Dendrology and Fundamentals of Green Construction]. Moscow, Vysshaya Shkola Publ., 1976. 238 p.
  12. Vorob'ev G.I., editor. Lesnaya entsiklopediya [Forest Encyclopedia]. In two volumes. Moscow, Sovetskaya Entsiklopediya Publ.1985, 563 p.
  13. Ishutin Ya.N., Klyuchnikov M.V. Sposob opredeleniya vozrasta dereva [Method of Determining a Tree Age]. Informlistok Alt.TsNTI [Information Sheet of Altai Center of Scientific and Technical Information]. 2000, no. 02-104-00, 1 p.
  14. Kalliovirta J., Tokola T. Functions for Estimating Stem Diameter and Tree Age Using Tree Height, Crown Width and Existing Stand Database Information. Silva Fennica. 2005, vol. 39, no. 2, pp. 227—248.
  15. Leak W.B. Relationships of Tree Age to Diameter in Old-growth Northern Hardwoods and Spruce-fir. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experimental Station. Research Note NE-329, 1985. Available at: http://www.fs.fed.us/ne/newtown_square/publications/research_notes/pdfs/scanned/ne_rn329p.pdf. Date of access: 12.02.2014.

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STRESS-STRAIN STATE OF AN ELASTIC HALF-PLANE AT A LINEAR SHIFT OF A PART OF ITS BOUNDARY

Вестник МГСУ 2/2017 Том 12
  • Bogomolov Aleksandr Nikolaevich - Institute of Architecture and Civil Engineering of Volgograd State Technical University (IACE VSTU) Head of Department of Hydraulic and Earthwork Structures, Deputy Director for Science, Institute of Architecture and Civil Engineering of Volgograd State Technical University (IACE VSTU), 1 Akademicheskaya str., Volgograd, 400074, Russian Federation.
  • Ushakov Andrey Nikolaevich - 1 Akademicheskaya str., Volgograd, 400074, Russian Federation Professor, Department of Mathematics and Information Technology, 1 Akademicheskaya str., Volgograd, 400074, Russian Federation, 1 Akademicheskaya str., Volgograd, 400074, Russian Federation.

Страницы 184-192

Loads cause vertical shifts of foundations of all structures, and the safe operation of buildings depends on the value thereof. The article presents a solution of the problem of stress distribution in a homogeneous and isotropic soil mass under vertical linear shift of a part of its boundary obtained by the complex potentials method. Expressions for stress components and strain components of the second basic boundary plane problem of the theory of elasticity for half-plane at the linear shift (the law of linear shift) of a part of its boundary are determined in a closed form. Patterns of isolines of stress and strain components are built; they illustrate that numerical values of all like-named components located at corresponding points on opposite sides of the symmetry axis are equal in value but opposite in sign. The formula of subsidence that occurs at the shift of the half-plane boundary part was derived. The value of subsidence is directly proportional to the boundary part shift value and inversely proportional to the lateral soil pressure coefficient value. Conclusions: expressions for stress and strain components of the second basic boundary plane problem of the theory of elasticity for half-plane are obtained in a closed form. Values of the stress and strain components are symmetric relative to the origin and opposite in sign; the formula of subsidence for half-plane boundary vertical shift is obtained on the basis of the expression for the vertical strain component.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2017.2.184-192

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СONSOLIDATION AND CREEPOF SUBFOUNDATIONS HAVING FINITE WIDTHS

Вестник МГСУ 4/2013
  • Ter-Martirosyan Zaven Grigor’evich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU) Doctor of Technical Science, Professor of the Department of Soil Mechanics and Geotechnics, Main Researcher at the Research and Education Center “Geotechnics”, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; Этот e-mail адрес защищен от спам-ботов, для его просмотра у Вас должен быть включен Javascript .
  • Ter-Martirosyan Armen Zavenovich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU) Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor of the Department of Soil Mechanics and Geotechnics, Head of Research and Education Center “Geotechnics”, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; Этот e-mail адрес защищен от спам-ботов, для его просмотра у Вас должен быть включен Javascript .
  • Nguyen Huy Hiep - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) postgraduate student, Department of Soil Mechanics, Subfoundations and Foundations, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; Этот e-mail адрес защищен от спам-ботов, для его просмотра у Вас должен быть включен Javascript .

Страницы 38-52

The authors formulate and solve the problem of consolidation and creep of saturated clay subfoundations exposed to localized loads (the two-dimensional problem formulation). The findings have proven that, if the two-dimensional problem is considered, any excessive pore pressure is concentrated immediately under the area exposed to the localized loading, and it penetrates into the depth equal to 1/2 of the strength of the compressed width. Subfoundation subsidence is caused by both shear and 3D deformations of soil. Besides, the ratio of shear-to-3D deformations reaches 10. Therefore, the authors propose to represent the subfoundation subsidence as the sum of shear and 3D deformations.The differential equation of the filter consolidation, if considered as the 2D problem, is solved using the Mathcad software. The software is used to analyze the isolines of excessive pore pressure at any moment following the loading application. New depen- dence representing the ratio of the changing area of the diagram of the average effective tension to the area of the diagram of the average tension in the stabilized condition is proposed by the authors.In the final section of the article, the authors solve the problem of prognostication of the subsidence pattern for the water saturated subfoundation with account for the shear creep of the soil skeleton. The authors employ the visco-elastic Bingham model characterized by time-dependent viscosity ratios. The authors have proven that in this case the subsidence following the shear load will develop as of the moment of application of the external load pro rata the logarithm of time irrespectively of the process of filtration consolidation.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2013.4.38-52

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  2. Florin V.A. Osnovy mekhaniki gruntov [Fundamentals of Soil Mechanics]. Moscow, Stroyizdat Publ., 1959, vol. 1.
  3. Tsytovich N.A. Mekhanika gruntov [Soil Mechanics]. Moscow, Stroyzdat Publ., 1963, 636 p.
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  5. SP 22.13330.2011. Osnovaniya zdaniy i sooruzheniy. [Construction Regulations 22.13330.2011. Subfoundations of Buildings and Structures]. Moscow, 2011, 85 p.
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  8. Ter-Martirosyan A.Z. Vzaimodeystvie fundamentov s osnovaniem pri tsiklicheskikh i vibratsionnykh vozdeystviyakh s uchetom reologicheskikh svoystv gruntov [Interaction between Foundations and Subfoundations in Case of Cyclical and Vibration Exposures with Account for Rheological Properties of Soils]. Moscow, MGSU Publ., 2010.
  9. Vyalov S.S. Reologicheskie osnovy mekhaniki gruntov [Rheological Fundamentals of Soil Mechanics]. Moscow, Vysshaya shkola publ., 1978, 447 p.
  10. Galin L.A. Kontaktnye zadachi teorii uprugosti i vyazko-uprugosti [Contact Problems of Theory of Elasticity and Visco-elasticity]. Moscow, Nauka Publ., 1980, 296 p.
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  13. Arutyunyan N.Kh., Kolmanovskiy V.B. Teoriya polzuchesti neodnorodnykh tel [Theory of Creep of Heterogeneous Bodies]. Moscow, Nauka Publ., 1983, 307 p.

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