Hydraulics Engineering Hydrology. Hydraulic Engineering

DETERMINATION OF THRESHOLD VALUES OF TURBULENCE ZONE FOR CONDUCTING HYDRAULIC EXPERIMENTS ON PIPELINES WITH TEXTURED INNER SURFACE

Вестник МГСУ 5/2018 Том 13
  • Orlov Vladimir Aleksandrovich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU) Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor, Head of the Department of Water Supply and Waste Water Treatment, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; Этот e-mail адрес защищен от спам-ботов, для его просмотра у Вас должен быть включен Javascript .
  • Dezhina Arina Sergeevna - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU) Postgraduate, Department of Water Supply and Waste Water Treatment, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; Этот e-mail адрес защищен от спам-ботов, для его просмотра у Вас должен быть включен Javascript .
  • Korolev Andrey Anatol’evich - OOO «Spetsial’noe konstruktorskoe byuro “Geotekhnika”» Engineer, OOO «Spetsial’noe konstruktorskoe byuro “Geotekhnika”», 10 2-ya Roschinskaya str., Moscow, 115191, Russian Federation; Этот e-mail адрес защищен от спам-ботов, для его просмотра у Вас должен быть включен Javascript .

Страницы 624-632

Subject: the article is devoted to the study of the processes of vortex formation (microturbulence) in non-pressure pipelines of drainage systems with a corrugated surface during transportation of liquid through them. The results of experiments on the study of microturbulence and carrying capacity of water flow at small fillings and velocities in an open tray are described for the flow past point and linearly elongated obstacles. On the basis of semi-phenomenological theory of turbulence with the use of universal indicator, expressed as a criterion of turbulence, theoretical derivations are presented for determination of zone of conducting subsequent experiments in the corresponding ranges of velocities at different heights of obstacles. The assumption is made that it is necessary to theoretically study the dependence of roughness coefficient on the ratio of obstacle height to pipe diameter in a wide range of fillings. The article presents the results of field experiments to identify the efficiency of pipeline network carrying capacity as a function of the filling value at a certain character of artificial obstacles. Research objectives: theoretical and experimental study of vortex formation processes and carrying capacity of fluid flow as it moves along a non-pressure tray with a textured surface to identify the optimal regime of pipeline operation. Materials and methods: literature sources were analyzed, stands for conducting field experiments were developed. We conducted a series of experiments and set forth theoretical propositions and possibilities for improvement of transporting capacity of the flow as it moves along the gravity pipeline with different textured inner surface. To determine the flow rate, a volumetric method was used, and the degree of turbulence was estimated using photo and movie equipment based on the use of black and white effect. Results: formation of flow microturbulence during placement of single or group obstacles in an open tray was investigated, graphs were constructed and mathematical dependences of the roughness coefficient on the ratio of obstacle height to pipe diameter were obtained for different filling values. A comparison of the values of the roughness coefficient was made for real sewer pipes made of different materials with artificial roughness generated on the experimental setup. The practical absence of discrepancies between artificial and natural roughnesses in the range of self-cleaning rates of water flow and normative fillings is established. Conclusions: studies have shown that the presence of artificial roughness in the form of various types of obstacles on the inner surface of the pipeline (by height, pitch, configuration) noticeably affects the transporting capacity of water flow. This makes it possible to use a textured surface in the form of polymer hoses applied to the inner surface of pipelines during their trenchless renovation to ensure self-cleaning of pipes and improve efficiency of sediments transportation.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2018.5.624-632

Cкачать на языке оригинала

FEATURES OF PERMEABILITY CALCULATION FOR CONCRETE-LINED FACING WITH SEALED SEAMS TAKING INTO ACCOUNT THE GROUND PERMEABILITY

Вестник МГСУ 5/2018 Том 13
  • Kosichenko Yuriy Mikhaylovich - Russian Scientific Research Institute of Land Improvement Problems (RSRILIP) Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor, Chief Scientific Officer, Russian Scientific Research Institute of Land Improvement Problems (RSRILIP), 190 Baklanovskiy, Novocherkassk, Rostov oblast, 346400, Russian Federation; Этот e-mail адрес защищен от спам-ботов, для его просмотра у Вас должен быть включен Javascript .
  • Baev Oleg Andreevich - Russian Scientific Research Institute of Land Improvement Problems (RSRILIP) Candidate of Technical Sciences, Senior Researcher, Russian Scientific Research Institute of Land Improvement Problems (RSRILIP), 190 Baklanovskiy, Novocherkassk, Rostov oblast, 346400, Russian Federation; Этот e-mail адрес защищен от спам-ботов, для его просмотра у Вас должен быть включен Javascript .
  • Garbuz Aleksandr Yur’evich - Russian Scientific Research Institute of Land Improvement Problems (RSRILIP) Postgraduate Student, Junior Researcher, Russian Scientific Research Institute of Land Improvement Problems (RSRILIP), 190 Baklanovskiy, Novocherkassk, Rostov oblast, 346400, Russian Federation; Этот e-mail адрес защищен от спам-ботов, для его просмотра у Вас должен быть включен Javascript .

Страницы 633-642

Subject: calculation of filtration through concrete-lined facings with the subsequent construction of diagrams of excess pressure when sealing the seams. The considered case of water permeability of the sealed seam of the facing refers to a two-layer medium with a sealed screen and an underlying base in which three types of excess pressure diagrams can be formed depending on the ratio of the filtration coefficient of the ground-soil to that of the sealed layer. Research objectives: investigation of cases of water permeability of the sealed seam of the facing in a two-layer medium where the top layer constitutes a sealed screen of soil in which three types of excess pressure diagrams can be formed depending on the ratio of the filtration coefficient of the ground-soil to that of the sealed layer. Materials and methods: dependencies of specific flow through the sealed seam are considered. Results: for the analyzed cases of water permeability of the sealed seam, it was established that for the ratio of ground soil filtration coefficient to that of the sealed layer the following values are obtained: 1) when , the excess pressure would be positive and the filtration in the foundation would proceed with complete saturation of pores with water; 2) when , the diagram corresponds to such a degree of seam sealing, at which the excess pressure at its base falls to zero; 3) when , there is a negative excess pressure (i.e., vacuum), and the filtration with full pore saturation transitions to motion with partial saturation of pores. Conclusions: The obtained value of the speed of spreading of seepage flow under the sealed seam in the first case when is (1.0> 0.274 m/day), in the second case when - (1.0 ≅ 1.02 m/day), and in the third case, when - (1.0 < 2.48 m/day). These data confirm the nature of the filtration process in the ground-soil under the seam: in the first case - with complete saturation of pores, in the second case, there is a boundary with the transition from complete saturation of the soil to partially saturated soil, and in the third case - with partial saturation of the ground-soil, which corresponds to previously established concepts of filtration nature for infiltration basins.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2018.5.633-642

Cкачать на языке оригинала

EXPERIMENTAL FIELD investigations OF DEFORMABILITY of claystones and sandstones

Вестник МГСУ 6/2018 Том 13
  • Ponomarev Andrey Budimirovicn - Perm National Research Polytechnic University (PNRPU) Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor, Head of the Department of Construction Technology and Geotechnics, Perm National Research Polytechnic University (PNRPU), 29 Komsomolsky prospekt, Perm, 614990, Russian Federation.
  • Sychkina Evgeniya Nikolaevna - Perm National Research Polytechnic University (PNRPU) Candidate of Technical Sciences, Associate Professor, Department of the Construction Technology and Geotechnics, Perm National Research Polytechnic University (PNRPU), 29 Komsomolsky prospekt, Perm, 614990, Russian Federation.

Страницы 756-767

Subject: the “load”-“deformation” dependence and phases of the stress-strain state of claystones and sandstones. Research objectives: perform stamp and pressuremeter tests, analyze results of field tests and create recommendations for the design and calculation of foundations on claystones and sandstones. Materials and methods: in this article the field methods of testing of claystones and sandstones are considered. Stamp and pressuremeter tests were performed, the “load - settlement” dependence was obtained and phases of the stress-state for claystone and sandstone were identified. The design strength of the soil for the drill pile buried in claystones and sandstones by more than 0.5 m was determined. Results of field tests are processed by mathematical statistics methods in accordance with GOST 20522-2012. The obtained results are analyzed and compared with the previous results of tests on foundations. Results: the scientific novelty of this work consists in revealing the regularities in the formation of the stress-strain state in claystones and sandstones under the action of the load in various directions. The deformation mode and development of phases of the stress-strain state in claystones and sandstones differ significantly from modern clays and sands. In 58 % of the stamp tests, the loss of the bearing capacity of the base, composed of claystones and sandstones, was observed only after reaching the load of 3.0 MPa. In 19 % of the stamp tests, the deformations sharply increased already at the load level of 0.6…2.2 MPa, which is characteristic of less stable varieties of claystones and sandstones. In 23 % of the experiments, the vertical deformations of sandstones and claystones had a linear character for the entire “load”-“settlement” graph and the phase of soil bearing capacity loss was not achieved. A similar picture was observed when performing pressuremeter tests: the phase of bearing capacity loss was not achieved for claystones at a maximum horizontal pressure of 0.85 MPa and for sandstones - at a maximum horizontal pressure of 1.0 MPa, and the deformations of the soil were predominantly linear, which is typical for compaction phase and phase of local shears. Conclusions: claystones and sandstones have high values of design strength and can be a reliable low-compressible base for buildings and constructions with loads from 0.2 to 0.3 MPa. Calculations can be made using the theory of a linearly deformed soil when designing the foundations of buildings and constructions on claystones and sandstones. However, it should be taken into account that this observation is valid for one-time loading, since claystones and sandstones have residual deformations associated with the destruction of cementation bonds between soil particles. It is rational to use in calculations of foundations on claystones and sandstones the values of the strength parameters of the soil obtained in laboratory or field tests with soaking, taking into account the possible deterioration of the properties of these soils.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2018.6.756-767

Cкачать на языке оригинала

EFFECT OF RICE HUSK ASH ON THE PROPERTIES OF HYDROTECHNICAL CONCRETE

Вестник МГСУ 6/2018 Том 13
  • Ngo Xuan Hung - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU) Postgraduate Student, Department Technology of Binders and Concretes, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation.
  • Tang Van Lam - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU) Postgraduate Student, Department Technology of Binders and Concretes, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation.
  • Bulgakov Boris Igorevich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU) Candidate of Technical Sciences, Associate Professor, Department of the Technology of Binders and Concretes, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation.
  • Aleksandrova Ol’ga Vladimirovna - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU) Candidate of Technical Sciences, Associate Professor, Department of the Technology of Binders and Concretes, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation.
  • Larsen Oksana Alexandrovna - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU) Candidate of Technical Sciences, Associate Professor, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation.
  • Ha Hoa Ky - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU) Student, Department of the Construction of Unique Buildings and Structures, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation.
  • Melnikova Anastasiya Igorevna - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU) Student, Institute of Construction and Architecture, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation.

Страницы 768-777

Subject: operation of concrete and reinforced concrete hydraulic structures on river systems and in the extended coastal zone of Vietnam takes place under the influence of aggressive environments, which significantly limits their service life. Therefore, the search for ways to solve the problem of increasing the durability and terms of maintenance-free operation of such facilities is very important. Previous studies have established the possibility of increasing the operational performance of hydraulic concrete (HC) by modifying their structure with complex additives that combine the water-reducing and densification effects. The possibility of increasing the quality of hydraulic concretes by using rice husk ash (RHA) as a finely dispersed mineral additive with high pozzolanic activity was also established. Research objectives: modification of the structure of hydraulic concrete; determination of the effect of an organo-mineral modifier consisting of RHA in combination with a superplasticizer on water resistance, chloride-ion permeability and strength of hydraulic concrete. Materials and methods: portland cement of type CEM II 42.5 N was used with the addition of rice husk ashes and a superplasticizer ACE 388 “Sure Tec” BASF. Quartz sand and limestone crushed stone were used as aggregates. Composition of the concrete mixture, compressive strength of concretes, water resistance and permeability of the concrete structure for chloride ions was calculated based on methods of Russian and international standards. Results: the use of an organo-mineral modifier consisting of a water-reducing superplasticizer ACE 388 and finely dispersed rice husk ash leads to a densification of the HC structure, which increases their water resistance and decreases the permeability for chloride ions. Conclusions: it was found that the introduction of the developed organo-mineral additive into the concrete mixture leads to densification of the concrete structure, contributes not only to the growth of compression strength at the age of 28 days by 32 % for HC-10, 23 % for HC-20 and 9 % for HC-30, but also to the increase of its water resistance by one or two marks. In addition, there is a significant decrease in the permeability for chloride ions of HC samples containing 10, 20 and 30 % RHA by mass of the binder, since the average value of electric charge that have passed through the samples made of HC-10, HC-20 and HC-30 were 305, 367.5 and 382.7 K respectively against 2562 K for control samples made of non-modified concrete without RHA. (The experimental results of measuring permeability for chloride ions were obtained according to standard ASTM C1202-12). Our study has confirmed the assumption that the introduction into the concrete mix of organo-mineral modifier consisting of a polycarboxylate superplasticiser and fine ash of rice husk, up to 90 % consisting of amorphous silica, will increase the density of hydraulic concrete structure, which will increase their strength, water resistance and reduce permeability for chloride ions.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2018.6.768-777

Cкачать на языке оригинала

Application of numerical modeling in the analysis of hydrometric structures in open water channels

Вестник МГСУ 8/2018 Том 13
  • Kusher Anatoliy M - All Russia Scientific Research Institute of Hydraulic Engineering and Land Reclamation (VNIIGiM named by A.N. Kostyakov) Candidate of Engineering Sciences. Leading researcher. Department of Hydraulic Engineering and Hydraulics, All Russia Scientific Research Institute of Hydraulic Engineering and Land Reclamation (VNIIGiM named by A.N. Kostyakov), 44, bldg 2, Bolshaya Akademicheskay st., Moscow,127550, Russian Federation; Этот e-mail адрес защищен от спам-ботов, для его просмотра у Вас должен быть включен Javascript .

Страницы 1008-1015

Subject: the algorithms and software for numerical analysis of flow-measuring structures in open channels are considered. The actual accuracy of measurements and range of application of such structures are limited by the conditions of preliminary experimental studies. The empirical formulas given in literature are in most cases insufficient for correct estimate of the metrological characteristics reliability and the applicability limits of hydrometric structures. Research objectives: development of software package for the analysis of hydrometric structures which ensures an increase of measurement results reliability and expansion of the range of flow measurements in open channels of water management systems. Materials and methods: based on trial calculations, we have identified and analyzed the shortcomings of the known general software packages for fluid flow analysis in terms of calculation of water discharge characteristics of hydrometric structures. We have developed the numerical algorithms and modules of a specialized software package for analysis of hydrometric structures without the drawbacks inherent to universal software products. Results: the computer software package for analysis of hydrometric structures based on the numerical solution of the Navier-Stokes equations in a three-dimensional formulation was created and tested on several types of flow-measuring structures. For increasing accuracy of discharge calculation, the new program module for generation of the grid with hexoidal cells was developed. The individual boundary and initial conditions for different structures are prescribed depending on free-flow or variable backwater regime. All calculation procedures, from the input of initial data to the output of results of the analysis in text or graphical form, are performed automatically, without participation of the user. As an example, the software testing was performed on the Crump weir calculation and the results of the test are given. Conclusions: according to the test results, the error in calculating the discharge characteristics doesn’t exceed 2…4 % depending on the type of hydrometric structure, which meets the requirements of technological and commercial water accounting. Thus, the developed software package can be used to increase the accuracy and expand the range of measurements of existing hydrometric structures, develop new types of water accounting facilities and study in depth their operation under non-standard conditions.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2018.8.1008-1015

Cкачать на языке оригинала

Technical and economic comparison of the efficiency of drinking water preparation from underground water sources using the membrane technology of nanofiltration and traditional technologies

Вестник МГСУ 8/2018 Том 13
  • Yu Dan Su - RAIFIL China, CSM official representative in Russia, RM 206 director, RAIFIL China, CSM official representative in Russia, RM 206, hengwen Business Building, No. 4285 Shendu Road, Shanghai, China; Этот e-mail адрес защищен от спам-ботов, для его просмотра у Вас должен быть включен Javascript .
  • Pervov Alexey G. - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU) Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor of the Department of Water Supply and Sanitation, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; Этот e-mail адрес защищен от спам-ботов, для его просмотра у Вас должен быть включен Javascript .
  • Golovesov Vladimir A. - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU) post-graduate student of the Department of Water Supply and Sanitation, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; Этот e-mail адрес защищен от спам-ботов, для его просмотра у Вас должен быть включен Javascript .

Страницы 992-1007

Research subject: research on the improvement of modern membrane methods of well water purification with the purpose of creating a universal effective technology for removing hardness salts, iron, fluorides, ammonium, strontium from water, etc. from water. Experimental studies have been carried out to determine the quality of water purification by water membranes from iron ions, stiffness and fluoride, and also to determine the rates of formation of calcium carbonate precipitations on membranes. For various cases of well water cleaning in the Podolsky District of New Moscow, an economic comparison of the newly developed membrane technology with the “classical” technological solutions offered by the main leading domestic companies was carried out. Objectives: justification of the effectiveness of the application of a newly developed membrane technology for the purification of well water based on a comparison of its economic and environmental indicators with the indicators of technologies currently existing in the market of water treatment equipment. Materials and methods: an overview of the methods for cleaning well water from various contaminants, a description of technological schemes, and their advantages and disadvantages is shown. A new approach to the development of technological schemes for wastewater treatment with a minimum consumption of water for own needs is described, consisting in processing water in two stages. Experiments were carried out to determine the technological characteristics of membrane units (the filtrate output, the rates of precipitation formation on the membranes). The studies were carried out on laboratory stands using nanofiltration membranes with different selectivities indicators. The determination of the costs of service reagents and equipment costs was carried out with the help of calculations according to a program previously developed by the authors to determine the technological characteristics of membrane units. Results: calculations show that membranes effectively retain iron, hardness and fluoride ions even at high values of the filtrate output (0.75...0.9). In the development of units, preference should be given to the use of membranes with low selectivity, low energy consumption, and low reagent costs. This was demonstrated using the experimentally obtained dependences of the rate of growth of the calcium carbonate precipitate on the type of membranes and the multiplicity of the volumetric concentration of the source water. Conclusions: the use of universal membrane systems in container design for the purification of well water at a flow rate of 10 m³/h and above shows that even in the simplest cases (removal of only iron from water) the proposed technology demonstrates high economic and ecological effect in comparison with the technologies traditionally used for this purpose due to its simplicity, small size, the absence of reagents and wastewater. The use of universal units makes it possible to easily cover large areas with a large number of wells and consumers due to their construction, installation and maintenance according to a single scheme.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2018.8.992-1007

Скачать статью

Estimation of flow velocity during ice drift and ice jams breaking at the river mouths of cryosphere

Вестник МГСУ 8/2018 Том 13
  • Dolgopolova Elena N. - Water Problems Institute Russian Academy of Sciences (WPI RAS) , Water Problems Institute Russian Academy of Sciences (WPI RAS), 3 Gubkina st., Moscow, 119333, Russian Federation; Этот e-mail адрес защищен от спам-ботов, для его просмотра у Вас должен быть включен Javascript .

Страницы 984-991

Subject: in this paper we discuss a method of calculation of the increase in mean water discharge during spring debacle of water streams in cryosphere. The main features of the debacle of water streams of river mouth zones in cryosphere are considered: ice drift, regular formation and destruction of ice jams, catastrophic floodings and washout holes. We discuss the methods of forecast of ice jams based on the estimate of the water discharge upstream of the potential cross-section of ice accumulation. Research objectives: theoretical investigation of flow velocity distribution over the depth of the stream during the ice breakup and its application for estimation of the stream velocity during the ice breakup. Materials and methods: the results of papers that describe the remote methods of estimating the speed of ice on the surface of water are analyzed. The aerophotography and satellite imagery methods, which enable us to estimate the stream velocity and water discharge during the ice breakup, are analyzed. These methods permit us to calculate current velocity profile and water discharge during breakup. Possibility of using logarithmic and power laws for description of flow velocity profile over the depth is investigated. The advantages of estimation of stream resistance with the help of Darcy-Weisbach coefficient in comparison with Manning’s roughness coefficient are discussed. Results: we consider application of power law for distribution of velocity over the depth to calculate the specific discharge of the water stream with ice floes on the surface. By integrating the specific discharge values through the width of a stream with the use of independently measured depth and water levels, one obtains water discharge of the stream. The method assumes that the ice run is not highly dense, and the stream velocity profile is not considerably different from that of an open stream due to the quick motion of ice on the water surface. Calculated magnitude of specific water discharge includes the water discharge moving along with the ice and the water discharge inside the permeable ice layer. The magnitudes of porosity of permeable ice layer during the ice breakup in rivers are presented. Conclusions: the research shows that application of power law velocity profile for estimation of stream discharge during the ice breakup has some advantages as compared with the logarithmic one. In particular, it becomes unnecessary to define the roughness coefficient during the ice drift, which is not a less difficult task than the estimation of water discharge. The improved method based on the power law velocity profile, developed in this paper, enables one to reduce the error of the method, as compared with the method based on logarithmic law velocity profile.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2018.8.984-991

Cкачать на языке оригинала

Результаты 1 - 7 из 7